Lee Miller (1907-1977)

Lee Miller, New York Studio, USA 1933 by Lee Miller

Lee Miller

Model, muse, photographer, artist, war correspondent & gourmet chef.
Born: 23 April 1907, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.
Died: 21 July 1977, Farleys House, Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.

Lee MILLER first entered the world of photography in New York as a model to the great photographers of the day such as Edward STEICHEN, Nickolas MURAY and Arnold GENTHE.

In 1929 she went to Paris and worked with the well known Surrealist artist and photographer Man RAY and photographer Georges HOYNINGEN-HUENE. By 1930 she succeeded in establishing her own studio. She became known as a portraitist and fashion photographer, but her most enduring body of work is that of her Surrealist images. She returned to New York in 1932, and again set up her own studio which ran for 2 years and was highly successful. It closed when she married a wealthy Egyptian businessman Aziz ELOUI BEY and went to live with him in Cairo, Egypt. She became fascinated by long range desert travel and photographed desert villages and ruins. During a visit to Paris in 1937 she met Roland PENROSE, the Surrealist artist who was to become her second husband, and travelled with him to Greece and Romania. In 1939 she left Egypt for London shortly before World War II broke out. She moved in with Roland PENROSE and defying orders from the US Embassy to return to America she took a job as a freelance photographer on Vogue.

In December 1942 she became a correspondent accredited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy.

After the war she continued to contribute to Vogue for a further 6 years, covering fashion and celebrities. In 1947 she married Roland PENROSE and contributed to his biographies of PICASSO, MIRÓ, Man RAY and TÀPIES. Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that she is best remembered.

Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.


1907 Born Poughkeepsie, New York, on 23 April to Florence and Theodore MILLER. Brother John born 1905.
1910 Brother Erik born, Poughkeepsie, New York.
1914 Sexually molested and infected with VD.
1925 30 May, departs for Paris with chaperon to attend L'Ecole Medgyes pour la Technique du Theatre.
1926 Winter, dragged home by Theodore MILLER.
1927 Discovered by Conde NASTE. Portrait of her by George LEPAPE appears on front cover of Vogue, March 1927. Photographed by STEICHEN, GENTHE, MURAY, with numerous appearances in magazines.
1928 July, image used as Kotex Ad in Vogue and other magazines.
1929 Departs for Paris, then to Florence and Rome to study art. Returns to Paris, meets Man RAY and becomes his student, model and lover.
1930 Establishes herself as a photographer in her own right with studio at Rue Victor Considrante.
Erik MILLER visits Lee MILLER in Paris.
Stars in Jean COCTEAU's film Blood of a Poet.
December, Theodore MILLER visits Lee in Paris and they travel to Stockholm.
1931 Visits London to do stills work at Elstree Studios for 1 July issue of the Bioscope and photographs sports clothes for June issue of Vogue.
Exhibits at Group Annuel des Photographes, Galerie to la Pleiade, Paris, France.
Meets Aziz ELOUI BEY.
1932 20 February - 11 March, first exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA.
Lee MILLER parts from Man RAY and closes her studio, returning to New York in November.
30 December - 25 January, 2nd exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery, Modern European Photography.
On arrival in New York sets up own studio at 8 East 48th street, New York.
1933 Meets and photographs John HOUSEMAN, Virgil THOMPSON, Joseph CORNELL, Gertrude LAWRENCE and other celebrities; 22 August, Erik MILLER marries Mary Frances ROWLEY, known as Mafy.
1934 19 July, marries Aziz ELOUI BEY and after a honeymoon at Niagra Falls, leaves to live in Egypt. Erik packs up studio.
1936 Resumes photographing for pleasure on trips to the desert in Egypt.
1937 4 March, Erik and Mafy MILLER arrive in Cairo to work for Aziz ELOUI BEY's company, the agency for Carrier air conditioning.
Early summer, goes to Paris and meets Roland PENROSE. Travels with him to England and then to Mougins, France to holiday with Man RAY, PICASSO, Eileen AGAR and the ELUARDs.
1938 Meets Roland PENROSE in Athens, and travels with him through the Balkans photographing village life in remote areas. Returns via Beirut.
1939 Roland PENROSE visits Lee MILLER in Asyut, Egypt, and they travel to Siwa and other oasis villages.
2 June, parts amicably from Aziz ELOUI BEY and sails to London. Moves in with Roland PENROSE. They travel to the south of France to visit Max ERNST and Leonora CARRINGTON, then return to England on the outbreak of war.
1940 January, lives with Roland PENROSE at 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead. Contributes to Vogue. Photographs fashion and scenes from the Blitz, later to be used in Grim Glory; Pictures of Britain under Fire, published in Britain and the United States.
David E. SCHERMAN arrives in England as Life photographer, and moves into Downshire Hill.
1942 30 December, becomes accredited as U.S. Forces War Correspondent. Photographs for her book Wrens in Camera.
1944 First photo-journalism article published on Edward R. MURROW in Vogue, followed by 'Unarmed Warriors' September 1944, St. Malo October 1944.
Teams up with David E. SCHERMAN, publishes further Vogue stories.
'The Way Things Are In Paris' November 1944
'Loire Bridges' November 1944
'Players in Paris' December 1944
'Patterns of Liberation' January 1945
'Brussels' - More British than London' February 1945
'Colette' March 1945
'Through the Alsace Campaign' April 1945
'Scales of Justices' June 1945
'Germany - the war that is won' June 1945
'Hitleriana' July 1945
'In Denmark Now' July 1945
1945 Vienna, covers children dying in hospital.
1946 Budapest, covers plight of deposed aristocrats, execution of Lazlo Bardossy, rural areas such as Mezokovesd, and celebrities such as STROBEL, SZENTGYORGI, etc.
On to Bucharest, Romania; photographing King and Queen Mother, gets massaged by a bear, wrecks car near Sibiu.
In the spring returns home via Paris to a heroines welcome from Vogue staff.
Travels with Roland PENROSE to USA.
Photographs Isamu NOGUCHI in New York.
They travel to Arizona and visit Max ERNST and Dorothea TANNING, then to Los Angeles to visit Erik and Mafy MILLER (Erik now chief photographer for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation) and Man RAY and Juliette BROWNER, soon to become wife. Return to England, too Europeanized to comfortably settle in U.S.A.
1947 Does fashion assignment in St. Mortiz with Peggy RILEY (later Rosamond RUSSELL) and discovers she is pregnant. Moves across the street to 36 Downshire Hill.
Aziz ELOUI BEY travels to England and divorces Lee MILLER. Registry office.
9 September, gives birth to son Antony and writes on the experience for December 1947 issue of Vogue.
1948 Covers Venice Beinnale for August Vogue.
1949 Writes about the Institute of Contemporary Arts exhibition, Forty Thousand Years of Modern Art for January Vogue.
Farley Farm purchased.
1951 Writes on exhibition covering Picassos birthday for November issue of Vogue.
1953 Writes and photographs life at Farley Farm for "Working Guest", July issue of Vogue.
1954 Photographs for Roland Penrose's book "Picasso, His Life and Work".
1955 Exhibits in the Family of Man, Museum of Modern Art, New York (and world tour).
1960 Becomes passionately interested in cooking.
1963 Goes to Egypt to meet Aziz ELOUI BEY.
1966 Becomes Lady Lee PENROSE when Roland is knighted.
Articles about Lee appear in Vogue, Studio International, and House and Garden.
Travels extensively with Roland PENROSE to Japan, Spain, etc.
1973 Photographs Antoni TÀPIES for Roland PENROSE's biography of him.
1976 July, guest of Lucien CLERGUE at the Arles Photo Festival, deputizing for Man RAY.
Exhibits in Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection, Art Institute of Chicago.
Diagnosed as having cancer.
1977 Granddaughter, Ami, born 25 April.
Exhibits in The History of Fashion Photography, organised by the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, USA.
Dies Farleys House, Farley Farm, July 21.
Venue & dates
Surrealist Lee Miller
La Térmica, Malaga, Spain 18 Oct 2019 - 26 Jan 2020
Lee Miller in Colour
Farleys Gallery, Muddles Green, East Sussex, England 7 Apr - 13 Oct 2019
Lee Miller & The British Surrealists
Fundació Joan Miro, Barcelona, Spain 25 Oct 2018 – 20 Jan 2019
Lee Miller Archives - Print Room
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, Friends Meeting House, Brighton, England - May 2019
Lee Miller: War & Fashion
Preus Museum, Horten, Norway 7 Apr – 8 Sept 2019
Lee Miller
Shoot Gallery, Oslo, Norway 14 Mar - 30 Apr 2019
Surrealist Lee Miller
Palazzo Pallavicini, Bologna, Italy 13 Mar - 9 June 2019
Lee Miller & The British Surrealists
Hepworth Gallery, Wakefield, England 21 June - 30 Sept 2018
Surrealist Lee Miller
Dunkers Kunsthalle, Sweden 5 Oct 2018 – 3 Feb 2019
Lee Miller: Portraits of Picasso
The Lightbox, Woking, Surrey, England 14 Apr – 17 Jun 2018
Lee Miller Archives - Print Room

Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, Friends Meeting House, Brighton, England - May 2018

Lee Miller: Liberation of Denmark May 1945

Frederiksborg Castle,Hillerød, Denmark 7 Mar – 24 Jun 2018

Lee Miller: War & Fashion

Kulturhuset Stadsteatern AB, Stockholm, Sweden – 9 Sept 2017 - 4 Mar 2018

Lee Miller Archives - Print Room
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, Friends Meeting House, Brighton, England - May 2017
Lee Miller Studios Inc. - New York
 Farleys Gallery, Muddles Green, East Sussex, England 1 Apr – 31 Oct 2017
Lee Miller Archives - Print Room
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, Friends Meeting House, Brighton, England - May 2016
Lee Miller
Martin Gropius-Bau, Berlin, Germany 18 March - 12 June 2016
Lee Miller: A Woman's War
Imperial War Museum, London, England 15 October 2015 - 24 April 2016
Lee Miller: Surealist Photographer
Museo de Arte Moderno 'MAM', Mexico City, Mexico 12 September 2015 - 21 February 2016
Lee Miller
NSU Art Museum, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA 4 October 2015 - 14 February 2016
Lee Miller and Picasso
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland. 23 May - 6 September 2015
Lee Miller
Albertina Kunst Museum Palais, Vienna, Austria. 8 May - 26 August 2015
Lee Miller Archives - Print Room
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, Friends Meeting House, Brighton, England - May 2015
Lee Miller: Motifs in silver print
Farleys Gallery, Muddles Green, East Sussex, England 5 Apr - 4 Oct 2015
Lee Miller's War
Djanogly Art Gallery, Nottingham, England. 29 November 2014 - 22 February 2015
Lee Miller: A Romanian Rhapsody
Ratiu Foundation, London, England. June -July 2014
Lee Miller's James Joyce
The James Joyce Centre, Dublin, Ireland. 9 June - 10 December 2014
Lee Miller Archives – Print Room Sale
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, The Friends Meeting House, Brighton, UK 10 & 11 and 17 & 18 May, 2014
Lee Miller Archives – Print Room Sale
Brighton and Hove Artists Open Houses, The Friends Meeting House, Brighton, UK 11 & 12 and 18 & 19 May, 2013
Lee Miller's War
Millersville University, PA USA. 7 April to 7 June 2013
Lee Miller Photographs
Galerie Hiltawsky, Berlin, Germany. 3 August –  6 October 2012
Picasso at Play
Farley's Barn Gallery ,Farley Farm House, Chiddingly, Sussex, UK 29 May to 26 July 2012
Through the Eyes of Lee Miller
Lucy Bell Fine Art Photography, St Leonards on Sea, TN38 0EL, UK20 March – 21 April 2012
Lee Miller’s Surrealist Eye
Kunstmuseet Brundlund Slot, 6200 Aabenraa 17 Jan 2013 - 12 May 2013
Øregaard Museum, Denmark 19 Jan 2012 – 20June 2012
Lee Miller & Picasso
Dylan Thomas Festival, Wales, UK 27 October 2011 – 19 Jan 2012
Man Ray and Lee Miller: 
Fine Arts Museum San Francisco, USA 14 July – 7 Oct  2012
Partners in Surrealism
Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass. USA.11 June - 4 Dec 2011
The Legendary Lee Miller
Centro Cultural Novacaixagalicia, Vigo, Spain 22 Sept - 20 Nov 2011 
Fundación Caixa Galicia, A Coruña  Spain 21 June - 11 Sept 2011 
Lee Miller in Luxembourg 
Centre National de l'Audiovisuel, Luxembourg 5 March 2011 - 12 June 2011
Lee Millers War
Visual Arts Centre, Frances Bardsley School, Chelmsford, UK 4 Nov - 17 Dec 2009
The Legendary Lee Miller                      
Jakopic Gallery, Ljubljana, Slovenia 22 Nov 2010 to 9 Jan 2011
Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Rijeka, Croatia 1 July 2010 - 16 August 2010 
Scatti de Guerra’Lee Miller e Tony Vaccaro dallo sbarco in Normandia alla Liberazione
Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome 4 Jul – 23 Aug 2009
Lee Miller Surrealist Eye 
Stenersenmusset/Stenersten Museum, Oslo, Norway 19 Jun 2010 – 5 Sept 2010
Millesgården, Herserudsvägen 32, Sweden 14 Nov 2009 – 14 Feb 2010
Mjellby Konst Museum, Halmstadt, Sweden 14 Jun – 30 Aug 2009
The Legendary Lee Miller                      
Moscow Fotofest, Moscow Museum, Russia 18 Mar – 29 Apr 2009
Lee Miller & Friends                             
 Pallant House Gallery, West Sussex, UK 15 Jan – 29 Mar 2009
Lee Miller Y Picasso:  
TEA Tenerife 6 Feb – 24 May 2009 
Evocación Y Recuerdo 
Fundacion Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Malaga 2 Oct 2008 – 15 Feb 2009
Picasso e a arte Portuguesa no sécLee Miller & Picasso
Sala Expo Arade, Portimao, Portugal 21 Aug – 19 Oct 2008 
Lee Miller Mini Portraits 
Mascalls Gallery, Kent 3 Nov – 13 Dec 2008
Lee Miller Mini Portraits 
The Oriental Gallery, Durham University 14 Jun – 14 Jul 2008
Lee Millers War
Malmo Museer, Sweden 1 Jun – 7 Sept 2008 
Lee Miller at Farley Farm
Farley Yard Trust, Farleys Barn Gallery, Sussex, UK 3 May – 31 July 2008
Lee Miller
Manuel Barbie Gallery, Barcelona, Spain Feb – May 2008  
The Art of Lee Miller: Jeu de Paume, Paris, France 14 Oct 2008 – 12 Jan 2009 
  SF MOMA, San Francisco 1 Jul – 21 Sept 2008
  Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia 24 Jan – 27 Apr 2008
  V & A Museum, London 14 Sept 2007 – 6 Jan 2008
Picasso en Privat Museo Picasso. Barcelona 1 Jun - 16 Sept 07
Lee Millers War Monash Gallery of Art, Australia 6 Jul - 2 Sept 2007
  Auckland War Museum, New Zealand 23 Mar- 17 Jun 2007
Lee Miller: Un Regard Libre  Musee de Grenoble, France 20 Oct - 12 Nov 2006
The Legendary Lee Miller  Fundacion BBK, Bilbao, Spain 21 Aug - 30 Sept 2006
Lee Miller Mini Portraits  Maison de la Photographie, Toulon 30 Sept 2005 - 14 Jan 2006
Lee Miller Portraits  Kunstmuseum, Wolfsburg 9 Sept  2006 - 21 Jan 2007
  National Portrait Gallery, London 3 Feb - 30 May 2005
Lee Millers War The Dylan Thomas Centre, Swansea 27 Oct – 30 Nov 2005
Lee Miller….A Retrospective Gammel Holtegaard Museum, Denmark 22 Jan – 6 Mar 2005
The Surrealists in Cornwall Falmouth Art Gallery – 19 Jun – 12 Sept 2004
Lee Miller, Portraits from a Life Wingfield Arts 21 June – 28th Sept 2003
Lee Miller ‘Muse’ West Dean College, West Sussex Apr – May 2003
Real/Surreal The Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester 23 Jan – 27 Apr 2003
Surrealist Muse: Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and Man Ray
J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, USA 25 Feb - 15 June 2003
Lee Miller Fashion Photography Sussex Downs College 4 Mar – 15 Mar 2002
The Surrealist and the Photographer Bermuda National Art Gallery 16 May – 28 September 2003
  Taidemuseo Tennispalatsi, Helsinki 26 Feb – 21 Apr 2002
  The Irish Gallery of Photography, Dublin 3 Dec 2001 – 31 Jan 2002
  Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh 19 May – 9 Sept 2001
A Life Less Ordinary  The Photographers Gallery, London 30 Dec 2000 – 27 Jan 2001
Lee Miller & The Avant Garde  West Dean College, West Sussex 26 – 28th May 2000
The Legendary Lee Miller University of Toronto Art Centre, Toronto, Canada 8 Apr – 30 June 2000
Canada Tour Presentation House Gallery, Vancouver, Canada 8Jan – 20 Feb 2000
Lee Miller’s War The Photo Fair, Swedish Exhibition Centre, Gotenburg 14 Oct – 17 Oct 1999
The Lee Miller Exhibition The Dylan Thomas Centre, Swansea 23 Jul – 18 Aug 1999
The Legendary Lee Miller  : Australian Tour Ivan Dougherty Gallery, College of Fine Arts, University of NSW  4 Mar - 17 Apr 1999
  The Ian Potter Museum of Art, University of Melbourne 21 July - 5 Sept 1999
The Legendary Lee Miller: New Zealand Tour Aotea Centre Auckland 15 Jan - 20 Feb 1999
  Waikato Museum of Art & History Hamilton 24 Oct - 6 Dec 1998
  City Gallery Wellington 1 Aug - 4 Oct 1998
  Govett-Brewster Art Gallery - 23 May - 5 July 1998
  Robert McDougall Art Gallery Christchurch - 25 Feb - 26 Apr 1998
Lee Miller’s War Photographs 1944-1945 Pelham House, Lewes 25 Apr – 4 May 1998
Lee Miller's War: Europe Tour Centre d’Histoire de la Résistance, Lyon 23 Apr 1997 – 27 July 1997
  Stadtmuseum Gera, Fera 3 Mar 1997 – 7 Apr 1997
  Kulturamt der Stadt Freiburg i.Br., Freiburg i.Br., 10 Jan 1997 – 23 Feb 1997
  Kulturamt des Landkreises Eichsfeld, Heiligenstadt 11 Oct 1996 –10 Nov 1996
  Stadtmuseum Waldraiburg, Walkdraiburg 9 May 1996 – 16 June 1996
  Kunsthalle Dominikanerkirche, Osnabrück 3 Mar 1996 – 7 Apr 1996
  Frauenmuseum Bonn, Bonn 9 Dec 1995 – 28 Jan 1996
  Kulturzentrum Zehntscheuer E.V, Rottenburg aN 19 Sept 1995 to 22 Oct 1995
  Volkshochschule Leer, Leer 13 Aug 1995 – 3 Sept 1995
  Städtische Galerie Erlangen, Erlangen 8 Jul 1995 – 6 Aug 1995
  Centre National de l’Audiovisuel, Dudelange 9 June 1995 – 21.June 1995
Lee Miller's War: UK Tour
Kelvin Grove, Glasgow Dec – Jan 1994
  Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield Oct – Nov 1993
  University of East Anglia, Norwich 25 Apr – 11 July 1993
  Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts
  Sunderland 15 Feb – 21 Mar 1993
  Gardner Centre, Brighton 11 Jan – 6 Feb 1993
  Institute of Contemporary Arts, London 28 July 1992 – 30 Aug 1992
Lee Miller Photographer: European Tour Brandenburgeische Kunstsammlungen, Cottbus 29 Oct – 4 Dec 1994
  Kunstverein Coburg e.V., Coburg 18 Sept – 16 Oct 1994
  Galerie am Fischmarkt, Erfurt 5 Jul – 7 Aug 1994
  Württembergischer Kustverein, Stuttgart 12 May – 19 June 1994
  L’Espace Photographique de Paris, Paris 29 Mar – 1 May 1994
  Historisches Museum der Pflatz, Speyer 16 Jan – 13 Mar 1994
  Fotografie Forum, Frankifurt 20 Nov 1993 – 6 Jan 1994
  Museo di Storia della Fotografia, Florence 24 Sept – 31 Oct 1993
  America Haus, Berlin 1 Aug – 9 Sept 1993
  Fotomuseum Stadtmuseum, Munich 16 June – 31 July 1993
  Museum für Kunst und Gerwerbe, Hamburg 2 Apr – 23 May 1993
  Helsinki, Finland 19 Feb – 21 Mar 1993
  Lathi, Finland Jan – Feb 1993
  Stedelijk, Amsterdam 7 Nov – 13 Dec 1992
  Museum Ludwig, Cologne 15 Sept – 1 Nov 1992
 Lee Miller Photographer: Fundacio Joan Miro, Barcelona, Spain April - June 1991
  Yokohama Museum of Art, Japan Jan - Feb 1991
  Santa Monica Museum of Art, USA Aug - Sep 1990
Lee Miller Photographer: US Tour
The Art Institute of Chicago, USA June - Aug 1990
  International Centre of Photography Midtown, USA April - June 1990
  San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, USA Feb - April 1990
  Minneapolis Institute of Art, USA Nov 1989 - Jan 1990
  New Orleans Museum of Art, USA July - Aug 1989
  The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA Feb - April 1989
 Lee Miller in Eastern Europe Staley-Wise Gallery, New York 20 Apr – 19 May 1990
Lee Miller Photographer Zelda Cheatle Gallery, London 9 May – 2Jun 1989
Picasso by Lee Miller Auckland City Art Gallery, New Zealand 22 Sept – 12 Nov 1989
Lee Miller Photographers' Gallery, London Jan - Feb 1986
 The Lives of Lee Miller Staley-Wise Gallery, New York, USA Nov 1985 - Feb 1986
 Lee Miller in Sussex The Arts Centre, Darlington 6 Oct – 10 Nov 1986 
  Leeds City Gallery, Leeds Aug – Sept 1986
  Chesil Gallery, Chiswell, Dorset 1 Jul – 31 Jul 1986
  Ramsgate Library, Ramsgate, Kent  20 Nov – 17 Dec 1985
  Worthing Museum & Art Gallery, Worthing 20 Jul – 17 Aug 1985
  South Hill Park, Bracknell 13 Apr – 26 May 1985
  Royal Museum and Art Gallery, Canterbury Feb – March 1985
  Southampton Municipal Gallery, Southampton 12 Jan – 17 Feb 1985
  Museum of Modern Art, Oxford 7 Oct – 2 Dec 1984
  Hastings Photo Gallery, St Leonards on Sea, Sussex 30 June – 28 July 1984
  Gardner Centre, Sussex, England  May 1984
Picasso's Gaze Photographers' Gallery, London May 1984
Lee Miller Mayor Gallery, London -Feb 1978
Julien Levy Gallery New York, USA 1933
 Exhibition Venue & Dates
Who's afraid of female photographers? Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France. 13 Oct 2015 - 15 Jan 2016
The Great Mother Fondazione Nicola Trussardi, Milan, Italy. 25 August - 15 November 2015
Dylan Thomas Unterberg Poetry Centre, New York, USA. 26 October - 4 December 2014
Dora Maar Nonostante Picasso Palazzo Fortuny, Venice, Italy. 8 March - 14 July 2014
Sylvette, Sylvette, Sylvette.  Picasso & the Model Kunsthalle Bremen, Bremen, Germany. 22 Feb - 22 Jun 2014
Leonor Fini/Pourquoi pas? Bildmuseet. Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. 2 Feb - 11 May 2014
Me, Myself, Naked Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum, Bremen, Germany. 20 Oct 2013 - 2 Feb 2014
Cornell & Surrealism Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, France. 18 Oct 2013 - 10 Feb 2014
Family Album Fundación Museo Picasso Málaga, Spain. 24 June - 6 October 2013
Man Ray Millersgården, Lidingö, Sweden. 22 February - 8 June 2014
  Öregaard, Hellerup, Denmark.  10 October 2013 - 9 February 2014
  Mjellby, Halmstad, Sweden. 15 June - 15 September 2013
Displaced Visions Jerusalem Museum, Israel. 5 June - 30 September 2013
The Spirit of Women  CLAIR Galerie, 1 rue de la Tour, France. 10 May – 8 June 8 2013
Art Paris Art Fair Grand Palais, Paris, France.  28 March  – 1 April 2013
Man Ray Portraits The Pushkin Museum, Moscow, Russia. 14 October 2013 – 19 January 2014
  Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edunburgh, Scotland. June 2013 - September 2013
  National Portrait Gallery, London, England. 7 Feb 2013 – 27 May 2013
Picasso of Málaga Fundación Museo Picasso Málaga, Spain. 23 Feb - 9th June 2013
WAR/PHOTOGRAPHY:  Brooklyn Museum of Art, USA. 8 November 2013 - 2 February 2014
Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath Corcoran Gallery of Art, USA. 29 June 2013 - 29 Septmber 2013
  The Annenberg Space for Photography, Los Angeles, USA. 3 March 2013 - 27 May 2013
  The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston Texas, USA. 11 November 2012 - 3 February 2013
Tea with Nefertiti Egyptian Museum ,  Munich, Germany. January 2014 - March 2014
   IVAM , Valencia, Spain. October 2013 - January 2014
  Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris, France. April - August 2013
  MATHAF, Arab Museum of Modern Art, Qatar.  15 November 2012 - 13 March 2013
Jean DuBuffet Pallant House, Chichester, West Sussex, England. 20 October 2012 - 3 Febraury 2013
L'art en guerre (France 1938-1947)De Picasso a Dubuffet Musee d'art modern de la ville de Paris, France.  12 October 2012 - 17 February 2013
Django Reinhart: Paris Swing during WWII Musee de la Musique, Paris, France. 6 October 2012 - 20 January 2013
Holbein to Hockney: 500 years of British Art Fundacion Juan March, Spain. 5 October 2012 - 20 January 2013
Documenta 13 Kassel, Germany. 9 June - 16 September 2012
First sightings of the Stars of Fashion Photography at  Musée Galliera, 10 avenue Pierre Ier de Serbie, Paris, France. 15 November 2013 - 15 March 2014
Condé Nast City Art Centre, 2 Market Street, Edinburgh, Scotland. 15 July - 8 September 2013
  Forma Fondazione per la Fotografia, Piazza Tito Lucrezio Caro 1, 20136 Milano, Italy. 17 January - 7 April 2013
  Auguststrasse 4A, 10117 Berlin, Germany. 18 August - 28 October 2012
In Wonderland: Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists  Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico. 27 September 2012 - 13 January 2013
in Mexico and the U.S Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, Canada. 7 June 2012 – 3 September 2012
  LACMA, USA. 29 January 2012 – 6 May 2012
From the Archive... Staley-Wise Gallery, New York, USA. 30 November  2012 – 12 January 2013
Picasso  Fundacion Canal, Madrid, Spain. 24 October - 7 Jan 2013
Art Paris Art Fair Grand Palais, Paris, France.  29 March  – 2 April  2012
'Ichundichundich’ MKG, Hamburg, Germany. 13 July - 21 October 2012
Picasso im fotografischen Portrait  Museo Picasso Málaga, Spain. 5 March - 10 June 2012
  Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany. 24 September 2011
7xjung. Dein Trainingsplatz für Zusammenhalt und Respekt Gesicht Zeigen,Berlin, Germany. 1 December 2011 - 31 December 2014
Rodin and America: Influence and Adaptions 1876 to 1936 Stanford University, Iris & Gerald Cantor Centre for Visual Arts, USA. 5 Oct 2011 - 7 Jan 2012
Curated By… Beaumontpublic, Espace Beaumont, Luxembourg. 24 September – 23 December 23 2011
The Colour of my Dreams:The Surrealist Revolution in Art Vancouver Art Gallery, Canada. 28 May 2011 - 2 October 2011
Three Stones in the City of Ladies Nottingham Castle Museums and Galleries, Nottingham, England. 22 January - 3 April 2011 
The Permanent Collection Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain. 2 Nov 2010 to present
Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC, USA.  22 Oct 2010 - 6 Feb 2011
Another World: Dali, Magritte, Miró and the Surrealists The Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, USA. 10 July 2010 - 9January 2011
Crucifixion in the 20th Century Ben Uri Jewish Museum, London Museum of Jewish Art, England.  23 June - 19 September 2010
Surrealism in Sussex Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, West Sussex, England. 19 June - 12 September 2010
Exposed San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, USA. 13 October 2010 - 17 April 2011
  Tate Modern, London. 28th May 19th September 2010
Pictures by Women: A History of Modern Photography Museum of Modern Art. 11 West 53 Street, N. Y., USA.  11 May 2010 - 21 March 2011
Alias Man Ray The Jewish Museum, New York, USA. 15 November 2009 – 14 March 2010
Against all Reason: Surrealism Paris-Prague Wilhelm Hack Museum, Ludwigshafen, Germany. 13 November 2009 -14 February 2010
  Kunstverein Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany 13 November 2009-14 February 2010
Angels of Anarchy Manchester Art Gallery, England. 26 September 2009 - 10 January 2010
La Subversion des Images: Fundacion MAPFRE, Spain. 16 June 2010 - 12 September 2010
  Fotomuseum Winterhur, Germany. 26 February 2010 - 23 March 2010
  Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France.  23 September 2009 - 11 January 2010
Coinage of the Mind West Dean College, West Sussex, England. 13 September – 2 November 2008
Traces du Sacre Hans der Kunst, Munich, Germany. 18 September 2008 – 11 January 2009 
  Centre George Pompidou, Paris, Germany. 7 May – 11 August 2008
Street & Studio: An Urban History of Photography  Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany. 11 October 2008 – 11 January 2009
  Tate Modern, London, England. 22 May – 31 August 2008
On the Human Being: International Photography 1900-1950 Museo Picasso, Malaga, Spain. 18 February – 25 May 2008
Be-Bomb:Amasonas del Arte Nuevo Mapfre, Madrid, Spain. 27 January – 30 March 2008
Artist Muse The Study Gallery of Modern Art, Dorset, England. 27 October 2007 – 19 January 2008
The Transatlantic War of Image and All That Jazz MACBA, Barcelona, Spain. 5 October 2007 – 7 January 2008
An Urban Portrait of Cologne Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftungkurtur, Cologne, Germany. 1 June – 5 August 2007
Momentos Estelares Circulo de Bellas artes, Madrid, Spain. 25 September – 18 November 2007
Visiting Picasso Falmouth Art Gallery, Cornwall, England. 22 July – 16 September 2006
Dada’s Boys:  Contemporary Art & Male Identity The Fruit Market Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland. 27 May – 16 July 2006
Then & Now The Camera Club, London, England. 29 September 2005 – 3 October 2005
Pablo Picasso: Portraits d’Arlésiennes Foundation Vincent Van Gogh, Arles, France. 7 July – 17 October 2005 
The Year 1945 – End & New Begin Willy Brandt-Haus, Berlin, Germany. 6 May – 15 June 2005
Surrealism & Photography: The Regard of Desire  Hamberger Kuntshalle, Germany. 18 March – 15 Jun 2005
Paris & The Surrealists Bilbao, Spain. 20 June – 18 September 2005
  CCCB, Barcelona, Spain. 15 February – 22 May 2005
A Transatlantic Avant-Garde: American in Paris Musèe d’art Americain Terra Foundation for the arts of Giverny, France.  December 2003 – July 2004
Picasso – War & Peace Museu Picasso, Barcelona, Spain. 25 May – 26 September 2004
Wherever I am Modern Art, Oxford, England. 20 July – 12 September 2004
Man Ray & Lee Miller FOAM, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 12 February – 2 June 2004
Women & War Imperial War Museum, London, England. October 2003 – April 2004 
Jean Cocteau – Sur le fin du Siècle  Centre Pompidou, Paris, France. September 2003 – January 2004
Picasso – Voyage dans l’amitie Museé La Malmaison, Cannes, France. 13 July – 28 September 2003
Buchenwald: After Liberation Gedenkstätte Buchenwald, Germany. April 2003
Picasso the Last Decade’ Art Gallery of NSW, Australia. 9 November 2002 – 16 February 2003
‘Unseen Vogue’  Design Museum, London, England 28 October 2002 – 1 March 2003
Blast to Freeze: British Art in the 20th Century  Kunstmuseum, Wolfsburg, Germany. 14 September 2002 – 19 January 2003 
In Search of Balkania Neue Galerie am Lundesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria. 5 October – 1 December 2002
Mémoire Des Camps Musee International, Geneve, Switzerland. 11 September – 8 December 2002
‘My Head is on Fire, but my Heart is full of Love’ The Modern Institute, Glasgow, Scotland. 9 May – 9 June 2002
Sade Surreal Exhibition Kunsthaus Zurich, Switzerland. 30 November 2001 – 3 March 2002 
Dora Maar & Picasso  Barcelona Centre Cultural Tecla Sela, Spain. 21 May – 14 July 2002
‘A Dangerous Liaison’ Marseille, La Vielle Charite, France.7 February – 30 April 2002
  Haus Der Kunst, München, Germany.12 October 2001 – 13 January 2002
Surrealism: Desire Unbound The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. 28 January – 6 May 2002
  Tate Modern, London, England. 20 September – 16 December 2001
Surrealismo Centro cultural Bank de Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 20 August – 28 October 2001 
Man Ray Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France. 8 April – 29 July 1998
Germany Seen from Abroad Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, Germany. October 1999 – February 2000
A History of Women Photographers Akron Art Museum, Ohio, USA. Sep - Nov 1997
  Santa Barbara Museum of Modern Art, USA. June - August 1997
  National Museum of Women in the Arts, USA. February - May 1997
  The New York Public Library, USA. October 1996 - January 1997
Face à l’Histoire Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France. 19 December 1996 – 7 April 1997
Forties Fashion and the New Look Imperial War Museum, London, England. February 1997 - November 1997
Bunuel. La mirada del siglo Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, Spain. December 1996 - March 1997
  Museo Nacional Centro de Arte, Spain. July 1996 - October 1996
Les trois grandes Égyptiennes Musée de la Photographie a Charleroi, France. 15 May – 15 September 1996
Die Gesichter von Paul Éluard Max Ernst Kabinett, Germany. April - September 1996 
Visages d’Éluard Musée d'art et d'histoire de Saint  Denis, France. December 1995 - March 1996
Photography and Surrealists Centre Cultural, Barcelona, Spain. 20 February – 14 April 1996
The Lost Bodies Fundación "la Caixa", Spain. 23 November 1995 – 14 January 1996
Der Rhein, Le Rhin De Waal Rheinishes Landesmuseum, Germany. September - October 1995
Ende und Aufgang, Photographen in Deutschland um 1945 Deutsches Historisches Museum, Germany. May - August 1995
Workday in Ruins. Leipzig, Germany 1945-49 Stadtgeschichtliches Museum, Leipzig, Germany. April 1995
Cologne Liberation 1945 Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln, Germany. March - May 1995
Buchenwald Liberation 1945  Gedenkstätte Buchenwald, Germany. April 1995
The Vital Link, WRNS role in the D-Day operations Royal Navy Museum, Portsmouth  England. 1994
St Malo Liberation 50yrs Commemoration St Malo, France 1994
Dachau Liberation 1945 KZ Gedenkstätte Dachau, Germany. June 1994
Müchen – ‘Hauptstadt Der Bewegung Müchner Stadtmuseum, Germany. 22 October 1993 – 27 March 1994
Surrealism  Art Gallery of New South Wales, Australia. 30 July – 19 September 1993
  Queensland Art Gallery, Australia. 21 May – 11 July 1993
  Australian National Gallery, Australia. 12 March – 02 May 1993
Vogue 75th Anniversary  Redfern Gallery, London, England. 1992
  Royal College of Art, London, England. 1991
Max Ernst Centenary Exhibition  Stadt Bruhl, Germany. 1991
Max Ernst  Fischer Fine Art, London, England. 1991
Theatre de la Mode Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. December 1990 – April 1991
Antiquity/Modernity in 20th Century Art Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain. 13 December 1990 – 10 February 1991
La Femme et le Surrealisme Parco,Tokyo, Japan. 1990
  Chesil Gallery, Chiswell, Dorset, England. 1989
  Zelda Cheatle Gallery, London, England. 1989
  Musée Cantonal des Beaux Arts, Lausanne, Switzerland. November 1987 - February 1988 
Contrariwise Glyn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, England. 1987
Surrealism in England Baruch College Gallery -1986
  Herbert Read Gallery, England. 1986
 Animal in Photography  The Photographer's Gallery, London, England. 1986
 The Indelible Image  Musée Cantini, France. 1986
   The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., USA. 26 April – 22 June 1986
  Institute for the Arts, Rice Museum, Houston, Texas USA. 6 February – 24 March 1986
   The Grey Art Gallery & Study Centre, New York, USA. 24 September – 16 November 1985
 L’Amour Fou: Photography and Surrealism  Hayward Gallery, London, England. 1986
   Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France. 1986
   San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, USA. 1985
   Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. USA. September – November 1985
 Atelier Man Ray 1920-1935  Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France - December 1982 - January 1983
 Man Ray/Lee Miller Photographs  Galeria Eude, Barcelona, Spain December 1980
Dada and Surrealism Reviewed Hayward Gallery, London, England. 1978
The History of Fashion Photography Brooklyn Museum of Fine Art, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA. 1978
  International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, USA. 1977
Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection Art Institute of Chicago, USA. 1976
The Family of Man Museum of Modern Art, USA. 1955
Britain at War The Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA. 22 May - 2 September 1941
Dutchess County Artists Lucky Platt store, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA, October 1934
Photographs by Henri-Cartier Bresson and an Exhibition of Anti-Graphic Photography Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA, September 1932
Exhibit of New York Beauty Bergdorf Goodman Department Store, New York, USA, January 1933
Portrait Photography- Old and New Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA, October 1932
Modern European Photography Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA. 1932
Showing of Hands M.H. De Young Museum, San Francisco, USA, May 1932
Trends in Twentieth Century Photogtaphy Slater Memorial Museum, Connecticut, USA, April 1932
International Photographers Brooklyn Museum, USA March 1932
 Group Annuel des Photographes Galerie de la Pleiade, France. 1931



Lee Miller has work in:
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England.
New Orleans

Appointed Galleries

Listed are the galleries around the world that have been appointed to represent the Lee Miller Archives and hold portfolios of Lee Miller's photographs.

Lee Miller Archives
Farleys House & Gallery (Lee Miller's home 1949 to 1977)
Tel: ++44 (0) 1825 872 691
Email: images@leemiller.co.uk

UK Galleries

Offer Waterman
17 St George Street
Tel: ++44 (0)20 7042 3233
Email: info@waterman.co.uk
Website: www.waterman.co.uk/exhibitions/

European Galleries

Clair Gallery - France
°CLAIR Galerie 1
Rue de la Tour
Saint Paul de Vence
Tel: ++33 (0)6 64 75 77 89
Email: info@clair.me
Website: www.clair.me

Clair Gallery - Germany
° CLAIR Galerie und Kunsthandel ein Unternehmen der Circles GmbH
80801 München
Tel: ++49.(0)1 75 83 82 777
Email: info@clair.me
Website: www.clair.me


Roland Penrose (1900-1984)

Roland Penrose, Mougins France 1937 by Lee Miller
 Roland Penrose
English Surrealist painter, photographer, poet and biographer of Pablo PICASSO, Joan MIRO, Man RAY and Antoni TAPIES, major promoter and collector of modern art . 
Born: 14 October 1900, St Johns Wood, London, England. 
Died: 23 April 1984, Farleys House,Muddles Green, Chiddingy, East Sussex, England. 
Roland is best known as a Surrealist artist and for his biography of his friend PICASSO, 'Picasso – his life and work' (1958), followed by books on MIRÓ (1970) Man RAY (1975) TÀPIES (1978), and his autobiography 'Scrap Book, 1900 - 1981', (1981). He organised the massive and highly acclaimed Picasso exhibition for the Tate Gallery in 1960, followed by other key exhibitions at the Tate and major galleries. He co-founded the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art) in 1947 but returned to painting in the last decade of his life, with exhibitions of his recent collages in London, Paris and Brighton.
The son of a Victorian portrait painter, Roland moved to France where he lived from 1922 to 1936. He joined the Surrealist movement in Paris, and on his return to London in 1936 he organised the International Surrealist Exhibition with the poet David GASCOIGNE. This led to the establishment of an English Surrealist movement in which he became a leading artist. His early painting was much influenced by Max ERNST, from whom he learned the techniques of collage and frottage, but it was the cubism of BRAQUE and PICASSO that gave him the key to his distinctive postcard collages. He used postcards with banal images in rhythmic patterns to produce patches of colour and unexpected new forms.
1900-1938, Early Years in France
Roland PENROSE's father James Doyle Penrose was a moderately successful Irish Victorian portrait painter, a Quaker who had met his future wife, Penrose's mother Josephine Peckover, while he was painting portraits of her family at their home Bank House (now Peckover House, a National Trust property) in Wisbech, England. Josephine was the daughter of Lord Peckover, the head of the renowned Quaker banking firm that bore his name. PENROSE was brought up in very strict Quaker traditions in his family home, Oxhey Grange, near Watford.
PENROSE initially studied architecture at Cambridge, then painting after moving to France where he lived from 1922 to 1935. During the first year he spent in Paris in the schools of Othon Friez and André Lhote he was strongly influenced by the Cubist works of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. The following year he moved to Cassis sur Mer where he bought a house that he shared with the Greek painter Yanko VARDA. There he met his first wife, the French poet Valentine BOUÉ in 1924 and married her the following year. It was partly through her that he met the Surrealist poets André BRETON and Paul ÉLUARD who in turn introduced him to Max ERNST, Joan MIRÓ and other members of the movement. In 1928 he and Boué had bought an apartment in Paris, and they travelled to India in 1932. Later they bought Chateau Le Pouy near BOUÉ's home in the Ger.

Artistic Influences and Techniques
Penrose's work as an artist was much influenced by ERNST. Many early drawings show his use of the technique of frottage, which he learned from ERNST. The paper or canvas is held against a textured surface like exposed wood grain or the embossed cover of a book and rubbed with crayon, pencil or other colour media like a brass rubbing, thus recording an impression of the surface beneath. PENROSE also used a process called grattage, which is the reverse of frottage. The painted canvas is held against a textured surface and the colour scrapped off with a knife or the edge of a piece of glass. ERNST was also well known for his collages, which are composite images made by cutting and pasting illustrations that he mainly took from the engravings that illustrated 19th and early 20th century periodicals. Both PENROSE and BOUÉ adopted collage in their own ways.

Apart from a brief period in 1936 when PENROSE produced abstract work influenced by Jean HELION, his work shows his strong and consistent commitment to Surrealism. He held a great affinity for the Surrealist moral, social, philosophic and artistic ideals, but unfortunately this created tension between him and Boué. She had become deeply involved with the study and practice of Indian religions, and her desire to pursue a path of renouncing all worldly ways conflicted with Penrose's longing to seize life and change the world through art. They separated in 1936, with BOUÉ going to India and Penrose returning to London the following year. He met the American photographer Lee MILLER at a party in Paris in June 1937. They fell in love and during the years that remained before the war they travelled extensively together in Romania and Egypt where Lee was living, married to Aziz ELOUI BEY. She left Eloui in 1939 and moved to London to be with Penrose just as war broke out.

                                                            Friendship with Picasso
Picasso & Roland Penrose conversing in FrenchIn 1936 ÉLUARD introduced Penrose to Picasso, and in 1937 facilitated his purchase of the painting Nu sur la Plage (1932). This was the beginning of PENROSE's close friendship with PICASSO which endured until the artist's death. Initially the relationship was purely a friendship between two artists, but PENROSE soon became an ardent promoter of Picasso's work, playing a major part in touring Picasso's Guernica in England in 1938. After the war PENROSE was able to resume contact with PICASSO and other French friends. When PICASSO visited England in 1950 he stayed with PENROSE and Lee MILLER in London and visited Farley Farm House their Sussex home.
Picasso with Roland Penrose in his studio at Farley Farm House
PENROSE organised several exhibitions of PICASSO's work at the ICA, and PICASSO generously supported the ICA, giving valuable works for fund raising auctions. When PENROSE wrote PICASSO - His Life and Work (Gollancz 1958) it brought him into even closer contact with PICASSO, which helped him to secure the loans for the 1960 Tate exhibition. PENROSE frequently
undertook to ask for favours of PICASSO on behalf of others, and was instrumental in securing the Tate Gallery's purchase of The Three Dancers at a greatly reduced price. He also persuaded Picasso to accept (and more importantly to complete) the commission for the giant sculpture of a woman's head that now graces Civic Plaza in Chicago, USA.

Return to England in 1936
On returning to England, PENROSE bought the house 21 Downshire Hill, London in 1936. He was attracted to Hampstead by the large number of avant garde artists, architects, writers and intellectuals already there. It was probably in Paris that he met Erno GOLDFINGER, the architect who built his now famous house nearby in Willow Road (a National Trust property) and who may have made him aware of the delights of Hampstead. Henry MOORE was another close friend with whom he visited PICASSO while the latter was painting Guernica in 1937. MOORE's sculpture Mother and Child caused a scandal when PENROSE located it in front of the house in 1938 and there was a brief press campaign against it. PENROSE also knew the sculptors Barbara HEPWORTH and Naum GABO, and was on friendly terms with the architects Wells COATES and Walter GROPIUS, and the painters Piet MONDRIAN, Paul NASH and Ben NICHOLSON. The publisher and editor of poetry Geoffrey GRIGSON and the art critic and writer Herbert READ were later to become co-founders with PENROSE of the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Arts).

Meeting Lee MILLER
In 1937 on a visit to Paris Roland PENROSE chanced to meet Lee MILLER, the former American fashion model who had been MAN RAY's mistress and pupil from 1929 to 1932. She had become a Surrealist photographer in her own right and ran her own studio in New York from 1932 to 1934 where she mainly concentrated on portraiture and fashion. At the time PENROSE met her she was married to Egyptian businessman Aziz ELOUI BEY.

Lee Miller, Lambe Creek, Cornwall, EnglandPENROSE and MILLER fell in love and travelled together first to Cornwall, England and then to Mougins in the South of France. Here they joined PICASSO, Dora MAAR, MAN RAY, Ady FIDELIN, Paul and Nusch ÉLUARD, Eileen AGARand Joseph BARD for a holiday at the Hotel Vaste Horizon.
PICASSO, who was greatly impressed by Lee MILLER's beauty and personality painted her portrait six times, and one version is on loan to the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh. He also painted PENROSE's portrait, but the location of the work is currently unknown.

PENROSE’s Contribution to Surrealism in Britain
Roland PENROSE is considered to be a significant British Surrealist in his own right. One of the distinctive qualities of his work derives from his closeness to the members of the French Surrealists. Strong traces of the influence of Max ERENST and Paul ÉLUARD are frequently evident in a manner not evident among the British artists. As an artist it is perhaps ironic that his greatest contribution was his role in the organisation of First International Surrealist Exhibition in London, 1936 which can be seen as the start of the movement in Britain.

First International Surrealist Exhibition in London, 1936
When PENROSE arrived at 21 Downshire Hill he almost immediately began planning the First International Surrealist Exhibition which was held in the summer of 1936 at the New Burlington Galleries. Initiated by PENROSE and the poet David GASCOYNE, committee members included Henry MOORE, Paul NASH, Ben NICHOLSON and the film maker Humphrey JENNINGS. This exhibition, opened by Andre BRETON at an event attended by Salvador DALI, Paul and Nusch ELUARD and the British Surrealists S.W. HAYTER and Eileen AGAR among others, marked the beginning of Surrealism in Britain. It was an outstanding success, attracting huge attendance and the scorn of the critics and the establishment such as the Tate Gallery.
Surrealism as a cohesive movement ended after the war, but as a style and an influence it remains an important driving force today. It lies at the root of many of the bold and witty images we see continually in advertising, fashion and design. Significantly, many of the works that were exhibited in the 1936 exhibition are now in the Tate Modern, The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and other collections of similar importance. PENROSE himself contributed a collage titled Beauty Prize and an object, Captain Cook's Last Voyage, the latter now in Coll. Tate Modern.

The London Gallery 1938-1950
In 1938 Roland PENROSE bought the London Gallery in Cork Street and ran it with the Belgian Surrealist E.L.T. MESENS until the war forced its closure in 1940. During this period they produced The London Bulletin, which showcased Surrealism and modern art. It was through the London Gallery that PENROSE and MESENS organised the 1938 British tour of PICASSO's painting Guernica and its associated works. The money raised by the exhibition was donated to the Spanish Republican cause. The following year the London Gallery published PENROSE's image diary of the Balkans titled The Road Is Wider Than Long, which recorded a journey through Greece and Romania he had made with Lee MILLER in 1938.

The War Years
Although he retained his Quaker beliefs in pacifism, Roland PENROSE continued to do what he could to support Republican Spain and was later active in the Artist's Refugee Committee (ARC) with his neighbour in Downshire Hill, Fred UHLMAN. The  ARC enabled about thirty artists to escape from Nazi Germany, finding them work and security in Britain.

In 1939 Lee MILLER left Aziz ELOUI BEY and moved in with Penrose in London. She was a photographer for Vogue magazine until after D-Day when, as an accredited war correspondent, she went to Europe, following the US Army. Her photographs of the liberation of the death camps of Buchenwald and Dachau remain as some of the most searing documents of the war.
Roland Penrose in uniform, Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London by Lee MillerDuring the war, PENROSE served as an ARP warden, and then became involved with the Home Guard Camouflage unit at Osterly Park as a lecturer, eventually becoming commissioned as a Captain and placed in the post of senior lecturer at the Eastern Command Camouflage School in Norwich.
PENROSE and MILLER were known for their hospitality and 21 Downshire Hill was the focus for gatherings of artists, politicians, journalists and even spies, although they were not known to be at the time. More notably, the artists and poets André BRETON, MAN RAY, Paul ÉLUARD, Max ERNST, and S.W. HAYTER were all frequent visitors. During the war E.L.T. MESENS and his wife Sybil, Freddy and Pamela MAYOR of the Mayor Gallery, LIFE Magazine photographer David E. SCHERMAN and journalist Kathleen McCOLGAN all lived there for a while. Valentine PENROSE also arrived in London in 1940 after the fall of France. She became close friends with MILLER and also lived in Downshire Hill until she went to Algeria with the Free French forces.

The Beginnings of the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art)
PENROSE's two major one-man exhibitions bracket his Downshire Hill period. His first was at the Mayor Gallery in 1939, the second in 1947 at the London Gallery, newly re-opened after the war. It was to be his last exhibition for 33 years, as he became more interested in promoting the works of others. The London Gallery re-opened in 1946 in Brook Street with Penrose as a Director and MESENS organising its programme of exhibitions, but lack of buyers for modern art forced its closure in 1951. Determined nevertheless to bring international modernism to London, PENROSE, MESENS, Herbert READ and others had founded the ICA in 1947 as a space for new and experimental art of all kinds.

PENROSE remained a guiding force in the ICA for thirty years, which began in 1948 with its first show in a rented hall that was part of the old Academy Cinema in Oxford Street. Titled 40 Years of Modern Art, it was followed by 40,000 Years of Modern Art.
Both shows were regarded as being key ground breaking events, presenting modern art, cave paintings and ethnographic art to a British public who were still struggling to assimilate Post-Impressionism. The ICA continued its pioneering work from its first premises in Dover Street, presenting shows that ranged from Picasso and Ernst's work to that of many young artists including Richard HAMILTON, Eduardo PAOLOZZI and other members of the Independent Group.

In 1968 PENROSE was instrumental in raising the money needed to move the ICA to its present location at Nash House in Carlton House Terrace on the Mall. He was responsible for some of the key shows of that period including Illusion in Nature and Art and Man Ray - Inventor, Painter, Poet. The transition to a large scale organisation funded by the Arts Council brought with it administrative and management difficulties that resulted in PENROSE's resignation in 1976. In 1980 he was invited by the then Director Bill McALISTER to return as President of the ICA.

Farleys 1949 to 1984
In 1949 Roland PENROSE and Lee MILLER bought Farley Farm, a small dairy farm in East Sussex with a large 18th century house which became a well-known gathering place for many artists and other figures from the art world. Pablo PICASSO visited in 1950, and Paul ÉLUARD, MAN RAY, MIRO, Max ERNST, Henry MOORE, and other old friends were frequent visitors. Valentine, PENROSE's first wife was among the first to arrive and stayed for long periods. PENROSE and MILLER’s son Antony, born in 1947, grew up on the farm, cared for during his parents' long absences overseas or in London by Patsy Murray, the housekeeper.

Farley Farm House, Muddles Green, East Sussex, England by Lee MillerPENROSE and MILLER filled the house with works of art, which hung on walls that were painted bright blue, yellow or a rich earthy red. In 1950 PENROSE decorated the inglenook fireplace in the dining room with a mural. Over the years Penrose landscaped the garden and added sculptures. Most notably Henry MOORE's Mother and Child stood on the front lawn, gazing across the farmland to the prehistoric giant, The Long Man of Wilmington, who is incised into the turf of the South Downs 8 miles to the south.

Today many of the rooms of Farleys House have been restored to the way they were in PENROSE and MILLER's days, and the house with its garden are currently open for guided tours through the summer and autumn.

Final years at Farleys
MILLER died at Farleys in 1977, followed by BOUE in 1978. Their deaths affected PENROSE profoundly, and he was also afflicted with a stroke that made writing impossible for him, but in his eighties he began working as an artist again, concentrating on his postcard collages. A show of new work titled Roland Penrose - Recent Collages was mounted in Paris, London and Brighton. The works reflect the places he visited; Trouville in France, Kenya, Sri Lanka, and the Seychelles.

Roland PENROSE died at Farleys in 1984 on 23rd April, which was Lee Miller's birthday.

Roland Penrose’s art and writing
Postcard Collages
It was during his stay at Mougins in 1937 that Roland PENROSE made the first of his collages using picture postcards, which form the more distinctive body of his work. Postcards with banal images and fragments of printed paper from newspapers or catalogues became reduced to patches of colour when cut and assembled in rhythmic patterns, liberating their colour and producing unexpected new forms. As he describes in his essay Why I am a Painter it is a technique that owes much to Cubism. A key example is the work The Real Woman, inspired by Lee MILLER which also uses elements cut from paper prepared with frottage and gouache. He used other items of mixed media like bits of vegetation, scraps of metal or plastic, and even parts of other paintings as seen in Magnetic Moths. Although he painted little after the 1950s he continued to make collages, returning wholeheartedly to the media in the last years of his life in the 1980s, completing The Last One a few weeks before he died.
Paintings and Objects
Roland PENROSE's paintings and objects of the late thirties mark his strongest period as a Surrealist artist. The happiness he derived from his new romance with MILLER was clearly the direct source of inspiration for a new surge of creativity, and several works refer directly to her, such as Night and Day and Good Shooting; Night & Day by Roland PenroseEgypt recalls his visit to Lee MILLER in Egypt in 1939. Octavia, The Invisible Isle, and the object The Dew Machine all celebrate his fascination with women, in particular with their eroticism and mystery. The threatening qualities of Black Music refer to the terrors of the Blitz in 1940 during which time he was an Air Raid Protection warden.
In 1947 he married MILLER, who was by that time pregnant with their son Antony. MILLER's changing shape fascinated PENROSE and she became the object of a number of studies that culminated in First View. Two years later his dilemma as to whether he should continue as a painter or become more involved with the ICA found expression in Don't You Hate Having Two Heads? The painting shows him wearing heavy armour, no doubt as a defence against his detractors. The Flight of Flies marks the end of a brief series of works that explore the graphic tracking of movement. The Third Eye is one of his last oil portraits of Lee MILLER. The single eye as her head refers to both Object to be Destroyed, MAN RAY's metronome object that had Lee MILLER's eye pasted to the bob weight, and to the way he frequently substituted the monocular vision of her camera for her eyes. In all interpretations, it acknowledges the importance of sight to them both. In 1975 Penrose created Hommage to MAN RAY where we again find an eye motif in the composition.
The only major exhibition of PENROSE's work in his lifetime was organised by the Arts Council in 1980. It contained 74 works and toured six venues, ending at the Fundació Joan Miró in Barcelona. The Long Man of Wilmington inspired the poster he produced for advertising the exhibition.
For Roland PENROSE photography was more an art in itself and also an aide memoire than a means of recording people and places. Some of his photographs provide source material for drawings or paintings while others explore the Surrealist penchant in finding the marvellous in the everyday. His shots are often quirky observations and suggest an innate rebellion against conventional portraits and landscapes. His friends and surroundings appear in a humorous style with some excellent portraits. It was the influence of Lee MILLER who he met in 1937 that inspired his most exciting photography, mainly during their travels in Greece and Romania in 1938. Some images are documentary, of Roma gypsies or the funeral of a peasant child, taken with distinctive penetration and compassion. Most are Surrealist found images and he used both styles in his book titled The Road is Wider Than Long an image diary of the Balkans July – August 1938.

PENROSE’s first camera in about 1926 was probably a Kodak Brownie producing 2¼ x 3¼ negatives on 120 film. By 1934 he had a 35m/m camera and although he occasionally returned to medium format this remained his preference. He did not print or develop his own photos. Today the estimated 2,500 negatives of his photographic work remain at The Penrose Collection at Farley Farm House.

Roland Penrose with Picasso reading the first edition of his bookBooks by Roland Penrose
From 1950 to 1980 Roland PENROSE produced few art works due to his involvement with the ICA, writing and organising of exhibitions. His biography of his friend PICASSO, Picasso - His Life and Work (1958) was followed by books on MIRO (1970) MAN RAY(1975) TAPIES (1978), and his autobiography Scrap Book, 1900-1981, (1981), which is full of anecdotes about his friends. He also wrote many catalogue essays and lectured internationally on PICASSO and ERNST.

Major Exhibitions organised by Roland PenroseLee Miller, Jacqueline Roque, Roland Penrose & Picasso with his painting of the three dancers
PENROSE organised the highly acclaimed PICASSO exhibition for the Tate Gallery in 1960, followed by the exhibitions of Max ERNST in 1961, and MIRO in 1964. In 1975 he played a key role in bringing the MAN RAY. Inventor, Painter, Poet exhibition to the ICA, and made an important contribution to Dada and Surrealism Reviewed in 1978. After PICASSO's death, he was also on the selection committee for the Dation PICASSO, responsible for choosing the works from PICASSO's estate given to the French nation in satisfaction of tax.

Roland Penrose Honours
Penrose was awarded the CBE in 1960 following the Picasso exhibition at the Tate. He was knighted in 1966 for his Services to Contemporary Art. In 1980 the University of Sussex honoured him with an Honorary Doctorate of Literature.

Bibliography -Select Bibliography
Ades, Dawn. Dada and Surrealism Reviewed. Arts Council of Great Britain. 1978.
Agar, Eileen. A Look At My Life. Methuen, 1988.
Gascoyne, David. Journal 1937-1939. Enitharmon Press, 1978.
Gilot, François. Life With Picasso. McGraw Hill, New York, 1964.
Gonzales, Sylvie (Editor). Paul, Max et les Autres. Éditions de lAlbaron, 1993.
Guggenheim, Peggy. Out of This Century. The Dial Press, New York, 1946.
Massey, Anne. The Independent Group. Manchester University Press, 1995.
Melly, George. Photographs by Michael Woods. Paris and the Surrealists. Thames & Hudson, 1991.
Melly, George. Its All Writ Out For You: The Life and Work of Scottie Wilson. Thames and Hudson, 1986.
Melly, George. Don't Tell Sybil: an Intimate Memoir of E.L.T. Mesens. Random House UK Ltd, 1997.
Morris, Desmond. Animal Days. Cape, 1979.
Penrose, Antony. The Lives of Lee Miller. Thames & Hudson, 1985.
Penrose, Antony. Roland Penrose, The Friendly Surrealist. Prestel. 2001.
Penrose, Antony, with special photography by Tony Tree. The Home of The Surrealists. Lee Miller Archives 2016. First published by Frances Lincoln 2001.
Penrose, Antony, The Boy Who Bit Picasso, Thames and Hudson 2010
Penrose, Antony, Miró’s Magic Animals, Thames and Hudson 2016
Penrose, Roland. The Road is Wider Than Long. London Gallery Editions, 1939.
Penrose, Roland. Picasso His Life and Work. Gollancz, 1958.
Penrose, Roland. Portrait of Picasso. Lund Humphries, 1956.
Penrose, Roland. Miro. Thames & Hudson, 1970.
Penrose, Roland. Man Ray. Thames & Hudson, 1975.
Penrose, Roland. Tàpies. Thames & Hudson, 1978.
Penrose, Roland. Scrap Book 1900-1981. Thames & Hudson, 1981.
Penrose, Valentine. Poems and Narations. Translation and Foreword by Roy Edwards. Carcanet Press and Elephant Trust, 1976
Remy, Michel. Surrealism in Britain. Ashgate, 1999.
Read, Herbert. Surrealism. Faber & Faber, 1936.
Richardson, John. The Sorcerer's Apprentice. Knopf, New York. 1999.
Surrealism in England in 1936 and After. Catalogue of Exhibition at the Herbert Read Gallery, Canterbury College of Art, 1986.
Trevelyan, Julian. Indigo Days. Scolar Press, 1957.
King, James. Roland Penrose: The Life of a Surrealst. Oxford University Press, 2016

Antony Penrose, with thanks to Michael Sweeney for his original research on Roland Penrose.

copyright- Antony Penrose Estate, England 2016.  The Penrose Collection. All rights reserved.


1900 Born 14 October: St John’s Wood, London.
1903 Third brother Bernard (Beacus) born.
1908 Family move to Oxhey Grange in Watford, London, England.
1918 Joins Red Cross Ambulance Unit in Italy.
1919 18 January: Enrols at Queens’ College Cambridge to study architecture.
1920 Meets Maynard KEYNES and Roger FRY at Cambridge.

17 June: Graduates from Cambridge, B.A., 1st in Architecture.
Goes to Paris to study painting with André LHOTE.
Meets Georges BRAQUE and Yanko VARDA, a Greek modernist painter.

1923 Goes to Cassis-sur-Mer with VARDA and buys Villa les Mimosas.
  Builds studio with VARDA.
1924 Meets Valentine BOUÉ.
  Becomes interested in Surrealist movement.
1925 21 December: Marries Valentine at Jordan's Meeting House, Watford, London, England.
1926 Three of Valentine’s poems published in August edition of Les Cahiers du Sud,  Edited by Jean BALLARD.
1927 First visit with Valentine to Egypt over Christmas with Bonamy DOBRÉE.
  Meets Count GALARZA.
1928 Buys flat in Paris 8, Rue des Sts.Pères, France.
  Roland meets Max ERNST and Joan MIRÓ.
  14-29 June: Roland’s first one man show at Galerie Van Leer, Montparnasse, France.
  Summer holiday with Max ERNST at La Noblesse, La Cadière d’Azur.
  Second visit with Valentine to Egypt to meet GALARZA.
1929 Returns to Paris via Middle East and Greece.
  Roland becomes friends with Paul ÉLUARD, André BRETON and other Surrealists.
1930 Small role in BUNUEL’s film L’Age d’Or.
  Death of Roland’s mother.
  26 November: Buys Château Le Pouy near Condom sur Baise, France Valentine's home town.
1932 2 January: Roland’s father dies.
  Valentine studies Sanskrit at the Sorbonne.
  Roland and Valentine visit India.
1933 Walking trips with Valentine and friends in the Pyrenees.
  Roland plans visit to JUNG with Valentine.
1934 Sponsors publication of Max ERNST’s Une Semaine de Bonté.
  Finances BRESSON’s film Les Affaires Publiques.
  Roland and Valentine separate.
1935 30 July: Sells Chateau de Pouy.
  Returns to London and rents flat in Rossmore Court.
  Valentine goes to India.
  Meets David GASCOYNE in Paris: they decide to bring Surrealism to London.
1936 Moves to 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, England.
  Organises International Surrealist Exhibition in London with David GASCOYNE, Herbert READ and others.
  On ÉLUARD's invitation visits Mougins with Valentine and meets PICASSO and Dora MAAR and others.
  Visits Republican Spain with Valentine, ZERVOS, and GASCOYNE and photographs Republican troops and marches in the Ramblas.
1937 March: ÉLUARD assists Roland’s acquisition of 'Nu sur la Plage' from PICASSO (on loan to Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh). 
  June: Meets Lee MILLER in Paris, and goes with her to Cornwall and Mougins. Cornish party includes Paul and Nusch Éluard, Max ERNST and Leonora CARRINGTON, Man RAY and Ady FIDELIN, Eileen AGAR and Joseph BARD, Henry and Irena MOORE. Mougins party the same less ERNST and CARRINGTON but plus PICASSO and Dora MAAR.
  August: PICASSO paints portrait of 'Lee Miller a L’Arlesienne', later acquired by Roland (on loan to Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh).
  Roland makes first postcard collages.
  Acquires Weeping Woman from PICASSO (Coll. Tate Britain).
  Acquires Rene GAFFÉ’s collection .
  Acquires 'Mother and Child' by Henry MOORE, (Coll. Leeds City Art Gallery).
  Exhibits in Surrealist Objects and Poems exhibition, London Gallery.
1938 Exhibits in Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris.
  Buys London Gallery.  Re-opens April 1st with MAGRITTE exhibition.
  Acquires ÉLUARD collection.
  Visits Balkans with Lee – writes The Road is Wider Than Long which he illustrates extensively with his own photographs.
  Curates touring exhibition of PICASSO’s 'Guernica' in Britain.
  12 December: Files for divorce from Valentine.
1939 Goes to Egypt to visit Lee.
  June: The Road is Wider than Long published by the London Gallery.
  19 June: Divorce from Valentine becomes absolute.
  Lee MILLER moves in to 21 Downshire Hill, London, England.
  Exhibition at Mayor Gallery with Ithell COLQUHOUN. 
  London Gallery closes.
  August: Lee MILLER joins him in London. They make a last visit to France to see ERNST, CARRINGTON, Man RAY, Ady FIDELIN and PICASSO.
  War breaks out.
  Contributes two works to United Artists exhibition at the Royal Academy.
  Roland joins The Industrial Camouflage Research Unit.
  Lee goes to work for Vogue magazine as a freelance photographer.
1940 Exhibition Surrealism Today at the Zwemmer Gallery, in June.
  London Blitz – Roland works as Air Raid Warden.
  Valentine returns from India and moves in to 21 Downshire Hill, London, England.
1941 David E. Scherman war correspondenet for LIFE magazine arrives in England.
  September: Roland enlists in Home Guard.
1942 30 December: Lee accredited as War Correspondent contributing to Vogue magazine.
1943 July: Roland commissioned as Captain in Regular Army, runs Eastern Command School of Camouflage based in the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.
1944 July: Lee goes to Europe as a freelance War Correspondent and becomes a combat photographer.
  Roland goes to Paris after liberation, re-unites with Lee, PICASSO, ÉLUARD and other survivors, gathers material for book of collected poems titled In The Service of the People. 
1945 Lee and SCHERMAN photograph Nazi death camps.
1946 Roland demobilised from Army.
  Creates organisation with Herbert READ that will become the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art).
  Lee returns to Roland after reporting from Eastern Europe.
  Roland and Lee visit New York, Arizona and California.
  London Gallery re-opened.
  28 November: Death of Nusch ÉLUARD.
1947 Moves to 36 Downshire Hill.
  Roland and Lee marry.
  Contributes to Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme in Paris, France.
  9 September: Birth of son, Antony.
1948 ICA first exhibition 40 Years of Modern Art.
  Acquires 'Kneeling Woman' commissioned from F. E. MCWILLIAM.
  Meets Diane DERIAZ.
1949 ICA exhibition 40,000 Years of Modern Art.
  Buys Farley Farm in Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.
  Sells 36 Downshire Hill and moves to 11A Hornton Street, Kensington, London, England.
  Roland has one man show at London Gallery.
1950 London Gallery closes.
  ICA gallery and offices open in Dover Street, London, England.
  Buys Farley Farm in Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.
  November: PICASSO’s visit to England.
1951 Patsy MURRAY comes to Farley Farm.
  Visit to St Tropez for wedding of Paul and Dominique ÉLUARD.
  ICA exhibition Picasso. Drawings and Watercolours since 1893.
1952 18 November: Paul ÉLUARD dies.
1954 Commissioned by Victor GOLLANCZ to write ‘Picasso, His Life and Work’.
1956 ICA exhibition Picasso Himself.
  'Portrait of Picasso' published'.
  Roland becomes Fine Arts officer in Paris for British Council.
1958 Picasso, His Life and Work’ published by GOLLANCZ.
1959 Appointed Trustee of the Tate Gallery.
1960 Curates 'Picasso’ Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
  Awarded C.B.E. for services to contemporary art.
1961 Curates Max Ernst Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
  Successfully negotiates for the purchase of Picasso’s ’Three Dancers’ by the Tate Gallery.
1964 Curates Miró Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
1966 Receives knighthood.
  ICA begins move to Carlton House Terrace.  First Sotheby’s fund raising auction.
  Buys Burgh Hill Farm, adjoining Farley Farm.
1967 Picasso Sculpture Arts Council exhibition at the Tate.
  Second Sotheby’s auction.
1968 ICA opens in Carlton House Terrace.
1969 Paintings stolen from 11A Hornton Street, London, England.
  Becomes President of the ICA.
1970 ‘Miró’ monograph published.
1971 Antony and friends leave to drive around the world on Muddles Green Overland Trek.
1973 Death of PICASSO.
  Co-curates Illusion in Nature and Art exhibition at the ICA.
  24 October: Antony and Suzanna HARBORD marry in New Zealand.
1974 Founds The Elephant Trust to encourage emerging artists.
  Roland and Lee go to New York for Man Ray and Max Ernst exhibition.
  Muddles Overland Trek returns with Antony and Suzanna.
1975 Curates Man Ray. Inventor, Painter, Poet exhibition at the ICA.
  Man Ray’  monograph published in London.
1976 Curates Max Ernst. Prints, Collages and Drawings 1919–1972 exhibition at the ICA.  
  Roland resigns from the ICA.
  Death of Max Ernst.
  Death of Man Ray.
1977 Appointed to selection committee for Picasso’s dation.
  Birth of grand daughter Ami Valentine.
  'Tàpies’  monograph published in Barcelona.
  27 July: Death of Lee.
1978 Member of exhibition committe and contributor toDada and Surrealism Reviewed exhibition at the Hayward Gallery.
  Tàpies’ monograph published in London.
  Death of Valentine.
1979 Visitis Bomarzo, Italy with Diane DERIAZ.
  Birth of grand daughter Eliza Mary.
1980 Roland Penrose Arts Council Retrospective exhibition tours Britain.
  ‘The Road is Wider Than Long’ reprinted by The Arts Council.
  Roland returns to ICA as ‘Honorary President’.
  Honorary doctorate conferred by the University of Sussex.
1981 26 February to 29 March: Roland Penrose Arts Council Retrospective exhibition at Fundació Joan Miró, Barceloana.
  Visits Siri Lanka with Diane DERIAZ.
  Scrap Book 1900–1981’, Roland’s autobiography published.
  Picasso’s Picassos exhibition at the Tate.
1982 Visits Trouville, France, with Diane DERIAZ.
  12 November - 30 December Roland Penrose, Collages Récents exhibition at the Galerie Henriette Gomis Paris, France.
1983 Visits Malindi, Kenya, with Diane DERIAZ.
  Roland Penrose, Recent Collages at the Mayor Gallery.
1984 January: Visits Seychelles with Diane DERIAZ.
  23 April: Roland dies at Farleys House.
  Roland Penrose Recent Collages and Lee Miller in Sussex exhibitions at Gardner Arts Centre, Brighton soon after Roland's death. It was their first combined exhibition.

Roland Penrose has work in the following collections:

Victoria & Albert Museum, London, England.

Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, Yorkshire, England.

Southampton City Art Gallery, England.

The Tate, London, England.

Appointed Galleries

Roland Penrose as an artist & photographer is represented by:

UK Galleries

The Penrose Collection & the Lee Miller Archives
Farley Farm (his home from 1949-1984)
Muddles Green, Chiddingly
East Sussex
Tel: ++44 (0) 1825 872 691
Email: images@leemiller.co.uk
Website: www.leemiller.co.uk & www.rolandpenrose.co.uk
The Mayor Gallery
22A Cork Street
Tel: ++44 (0)20 773 43558
Fax: ++44 (0)20 774 941377
Website: www.themayorgallery.com

Farleys House and Gallery

Farleys House by Lee MillerLee Miller, Roland Penrose and their son Antony Penrose moved to Farleys in 1949 and their Sussex home soon became a meeting place for some of the leading figures from the world of twentieth-century modern art. 

Pablo Picasso stayed in 1950, and Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Man Ray Leonora Carrington and Antoni Tapies visited from overseas whilst Eileen Agar, Kenneth Armitage, William Turnbull, John Craxton and Richard Hamilton formed the British contingent. 

Works by many of these artists are displayed in the house in a selection that regularly changes as items are loaned to exhibitions in galleries around the world.

For the most part the house is just as it was when it was occupied by the Penrose family. Lee Miller’s kitchen looks as though she has just popped out to gather vegetables from the garden and Roland Penrose’s study only lacks the aroma of his cigar smoke.

Farleys House remains alive and vibrant today as it documents Surrealism and modern art and in so doing informs our present day culture. 

Farleys is the centre of the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection from which books, exhibitions and reproduction rights are privately managed by the family who are dedicated to the conservation and dissemination of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose’s work. 

The house and archive receive no public funding. It is your support through the purchase of tours tickets and books and prints from our gift shop and picture library which allow us to continue our work in sharing the extraordinary legacy of Lee and Roland. 


detail of fireplace mural, Farleys House


Visiting Farleys

Every Thursday, Friday and Sunday between 4th April to 31st October visitors are invited to visit the home of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose taking a tour of the house, exploring the sculpture garden and enjoying exhibitions in the adjacent galleries.

The Farleys House Tour is led by a trained guide and introduces visitors to the lives and art of Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and their friends.  The tour takes 50 minutes and begin at half past the hour from 10.30am until 3.30pm  with a maximum of 10 guests on each tour.

2024 Season admission is £23.00 per person and tickets are available on the Farleys website. Please see farleyshouseandgallery.co.uk for more information

Private View tours led by Lee Miller and Roland Penrose's family are also available to book on some days. For more information on these and the Workshops at Farleys please visit Farleys website

Farleys House & Gallery
Farley Farm
Muddles Green
East Sussex

Find us on Google Maps here

Directions from London by road

> M25 junction 6 > A22 towards East Grinstead & Eastbourne > OR M25 junction 7 > M23 south towards Brighton > junction 10 - A264 towards East Grinstead > A22 turn right towards Eastbourne > THEN once on A22: through Forest Row, Nutley, Uckfield by-pass, through Halland and Whitesmith> turn left immediately after BP garage at Golden Cross> turn right at T-junction> follow signs for Village Shop which is located in the car park at Farleys. 

From Lewes by road

> B2192 to Ringmer> B2124 via Laughton> T-junction with A22, turn right> turn next left at BP garage at Golden Cross> turn right at T-junction>follow signs for Village Shop which is located in the car park at Farleys. 

From Eastbourne by road

> A22 north towards London > turn right at Golden Cross, just before BP garage> turn right at T junction> follow signs for Village Shop which is located in the car park at Farleys. 

Free parking is available in the farmyard next to Farleys Gallery and the village shop.  

Train & Taxi

Our nearest train stations are Lewes and Berwick. There is a direct train from London Victoria to Lewes that leaves roughly on an hourly basis. It is approximately a 20 minute taxi journey from Lewes station and currently costs approx £25 each way. There is a taxi rank at Lewes station.

For suggestions of where to stay and eat when visiting Farleys House and Gallery please see farleyshouseandgallery.co.uk




David E Scherman (1916-1997)

David E Scherman, London, England by Lee MillerDavid E. Scherman
American photojournalist, war correspondent and editor of LIFE Magazine

Born: 2nd March 1916, Manhattan, New York, USA
Died: 5th May 1997, Stony Point, New York, USA

David E. SCHERMAN was the longest serving staff member of LIFE Magazine. Shortly after graduating from Dartmouth College in 1936 he bought a Leica camera, impressed editors at the magazine with his shots of Manhattan and was hired as a copy boy. SCHERMAN worked his way up to become the only staff photographer to become an editor and continued with the magazine until it folded in 1972.

In 1941, SCHERMAN was on board an Egyptian liner called the Zamzam, heading for an assignment in South Africa. The ship was attacked and sunk by a German war ship disguised as a merchant vessel. SCHERMAN took pictures from the lifeboat and when he was taken prisoner by the Germans hid the films in tubes of shaving cream and toothpaste which he later smuggled back to LIFE Magazine to publish. The pictures of the ship enabled the British Navy to track down the surface raider and sink it.

SCHERMAN then worked as a war correspondent for LIFE in London, where he first met Lee MILLER. He moved in with MILLER and Roland PENROSE in their Hampstead home. There started his relationship with MILLER which, with PENROSE’s blessing, became more than just friendship and lasted throughout World War II.

With SCHERMAN working for LIFE Magazine and MILLER for Vogue their paths continually crossed in Europe after D-day, most notably at the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris and at the link-up of Russian, British and US troops in Torgau. By the time they entered Dachau concentration camp in 1945, recording the horrors before them and later experiencing the luxury of hot water and soap in Hitler’s apartment in Munich, they had become one of the most highly regarded and often envied photo-journalist duos of the war.

After being recalled to New York, SCHERMAN married Rosemary REDLICH in June 1949 and had two sons John and Tony. 

In 1973 Scherman edited a hugely successful series of TIME LIFE books including The Best of LIFE. His final writing assignment was the introduction to the book Lee Miller’s War edited by Antony Penrose.
After TIME Inc. closed their doors Scherman’s second career began as a contractor.  He built 28 houses for his friends on Cape Cod, Long Island, Rockland and New Jersey and his own home Stony Point. 

David E. SCHERMAN died in 1997, aged 81, of Cancer at his home Stony Point, USA

1916       Born 2 March, Manhattan, New York, USA.

1936       Graduates from Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA

  Starts work as Copy Boy, Life Magazine, New York.

1941       17 April Scherman was on board an Egyptian liner called the Zamzam

  Scherman as war correspondent for LIFE magazine arrives in England.

1942       30 December: Lee accredited as War Correspondent contributing to Vogue magazine.

1943       Author of Literary England.

1945       Lee and SCHERMAN photograph Nazi death camps.

1949       11 June marries Rosemarie Redlich.

1955       Author of Literary America.

1972       11 June LIFE ceases publication

1973       Edits The Best of LIFE that sells over 1 million copies in six months

1975       Writes successful anthology Life Goes to the Movies

1977       Writes successful anthology Life Goes to World War II

1989       Collaborates with Soviet journalist Grigori Chudakov on Allies a history of Russian –American war pictures.

1992       Writes introduction for Lee Miller’s War by Antony Penrose. 

1997       5 May Scherman dies aged 81 of Cancer, Stony Point, New York, USA


Antony Penrose (1947-)

Antony Penrose at window, Farley Farm House, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England 1949 by Lee Miller

 Antony Penrose

Film maker, photographer, author, artist, photo curator, co-founder of the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection.
Born: 9 September 1947, London, England.

Antony's photographic career began at an early age when peering through the view finder of his mother Lee MILLER's Rolleiflex camera. He says he could not understand why the image he saw in colour returned in black and white, and that was the beginning of his fascination with the medium.

His mother was a good mentor. At the age of 14 a family visit to PICASSO produced some amateur images which later became widely published. On a trip to Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1962 she was taken ill and handed him her Zeiss Contax to get the pictures she could not take. She explained the working of the light meter and advised, "If you drop the camera I will break your neck". Only recently have any of those pictures been published, which reminds us that the historical content of a photograph can compensate for the photographer's early lack of expertise. Later images from the 1960’s of artists such as PICASSO, Joan MIRÓ and Man RAY are now widely known.

Antony's first camera was a Kodak using 121 film to make 1 1/4 " square negatives. Later Antony used mainly 35m/m and medium format and today shoots digital and DVD but is still nostalgic about analogue.

Initially photography supported his journalism for Farmers Weekly magazine, particularly during his 3¼ year circumnavigation of the world in a Land-Rover with his lifelong friend Robert BRADEN.

Peter BUCKNALL of Athos Films gave Antony his break into 16 m/m film making working on Kings Horses and Migrate to Survive. These documentaries about horses were both shot in Iran and led to Antony establishing Penrose Film Productions Ltd., with 18 produced credits for documentaries, technical films and drama shorts.

Antony's photography continued as production stills, documentary and occasional fashion work with subjects including farming, forestry, contemporary dance, portraits and his sequences on windows and trees. With the rise of the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection much of his work was shooting copy work or documentary connected to the collections, and for inclusion in his lectures on the international circuit. His work comprises about 15,000 images and is housed by The Penrose Collection & the Lee Miller Archives.

His main activity is writing and lecturing on photography and fine art.

Antony Penrose

(C) Antony Penrose 2013 All rights reserved

Antony Penrose has dedicated a large part of his life to research into the lives of his parents Lee MILLER & Roland PENROSE and their circle of artists friends. He lectures from the unique stand point of a person who personally knew many of the artists and illustrates his talks with documents and images from the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection.

An accredited NADFAS lecturer, he has also lectured for institutions such as the V&A, Tate Britain, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Museu Picasso Barcelona, Museum Ludwig and The Art Gallery of Ontario.

He also presents study days and contributes to seminars. One of his performance pieces, The Angel and The Fiend on the life of Lee Miller, has been staged widely in the USA and UK.

For available lectures, seminar & performance details please see catalogue below.
For bookings please email stating the title you are interested in, the institution/club or association name and approx. dates.


Lee Miller Self portait (cropped to head as if for a passport picture), New York, USA 1933 by Lee MillerThe Indestructible Lee Miller
50 minute version 250 images. Power Point. Designed for use on Zoom and for live performance.
From an early age Lee Miller learned the chances life brought needed her skilful and courageous adaptation to make them work for her. Born 1907 in America, she morphed from a young artist to a top fashion model. In Paris she became a surrealist photographer also shooting fashion for American Vogue. Back in New York she had a highly successful studio but left to marry an Egyptian and become a photographer of that land. At the outbreak of WW2 she arrived in London, returning to fashion photography for Vogue and later became their war correspondent with the US Army in Europe. Her final career was as a surrealist gourmet cook in her last home, Farleys House in Sussex. Her life was filled with passion, heartbreak and high drama. Her secret in moving forward was to grab her chances with both hands. It made her indestructible in the sense that today her work is the subject of many books, TV documentaries, international exhibitions and in 2022 a feature film.

  •     Created for the exhibition The Indestructible Lee Miller. Museum of Art, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA 2015
  •     Contains highly disturbing images of the holocaust, war and its consequences


Lee Miller looking over the top of her sun glasses, Egypt

Surrealist Lee Miller
60 minute version 300 images, Powerpoint.
Lee Miller was a surrealist back home in Poughkeepsie New York before the movement had a name. Her love affair and collaboration with Man Ray in Paris from 1929 to 32 established her unquestionably as part of the movement and her love and later marriage to Roland Penrose put her firmly in the middle of British surrealism. She remained a surrealist resolutely on her own terms through her subsequent roles as a fashion photographer, photo-journalist, combat photographer and finally a gourmet cook. She is now rightfully recognised as a woman surrealist artist for whom surrealism was a natural expression of her way of life and her way of seeing. who made her own highly significant
contribution to the art of the 20th Century in Britain and Europe.

  • Created for the Hepworth Wakefield exhibition Lee Miller and Surrealism in Britain 2018
  • Contains distrubing images of the holocaust, war and consequences.

Auxilliary Territorial Service Searchlight Operators, Hendon, North London, England 1943

Lee Miller: Witnessing Women at War
60 minute version 300 images. Power Point
For Lee Miller a woman at war was any woman caught up in the events of World War 2. We see her faultless images for Vogue’s haute couture in London’s bombed out streets. She documented the magnificent work of the WRNS, ATS, the Land Girls, the WRVS and the nurses. She shows us the refugees in Europe, girls accused of collaboration, women forced into slave labour or prostitution and concentration camp victims. This catalogue ranges from bravery to stupidity and from enforced involvement to volunteering. It is told against the background of Lee Miller’s own life story which takes her from being a fashion supermodel via life as a surrealist artist to a combat photographer and finally a gourmet cook.
•    Originally created for Petersfield NADFAS Study Day 2015
•    Coincides with the 2015 Imperial War Museum exhibition Lee Miller, A Woman’s War
•    Contains highly disturbing images of the holocaust, extreme violence and depravity



Lee Miller and Roland Penrose
60 minutes, Power Point 270 images
The story of Roland Penrose, British Surrealist artist and biographer of Picasso and Lee Miller, the American Surrealist photographer, who shot fashion and combat with equal talent seen through the eyes of their son Antony Penrose, who is also their biographer. We look at how their early lives formed their motivations and how they strove to use art to make the world a better place. The last decades of their life together were at Farley Farm, their home in Sussex which was frequented by many prominent Surrealist and Modern artists.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences.

The Legendary Lee Miller
60 to 80 minutes Power Point 300 images
"That was not so much a lecture as a prose poem set to beautiful images." Andrew Parkin, Poet, Critic and Chairman, Paris DFAS
“Your well researched and informative lecture was indeed a master class.” Jonathan Hill, Chairman, S.W. Branch Photographic Collectors Club of Great Britain.

The life of Lee Miller, told with reference to those with whom she exchanged creative inspiration – Man Ray, Roland Penrose, Pablo Picasso, David E. Scherman, her father Theodore Miller and her son Antony Penrose. A definitive view by her son and biographer, this presentation has been acclaimed for its ability to embrace many different levels of the history of art and photography, social commentary and emotional connection with the subject. It gives an accurate and lasting portrait of a talented and courageous woman who was a free spirit and a trail blazer.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Toured in UK, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Scandinavia, Bermuda, and Europe.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences.

Picasso and Antony Penrose, Farley Farm House, East Sussex, England 1950 by Lee MillerLee Miller and Picasso
50 - 90 minutes Power Point 260 images
 “'Fabulous'; 'the best NADFAS lecture from any society over a 30 year membership'; 'this one lecture was more than worth the whole year's subscription'. The fact that you were speaking from the heart came across and members were really quite moved by the tribute to your Mother and fascinated by your insights into Picasso and his work.” Janice Brooke, Programme Secretary, Lunesdale DFAS

The relationship between Lee Miller and Picasso began during the enchanted summer holiday they shared in the Côte d’Azur in 1937 and lasted until Picasso’s death in 1973. Picasso painted 6 portraits of Lee Miller and she photographed him more than 1,000 times. She was a frequent visitor to his home in post war years accompanying Roland Penrose on his many research trips whilst he was writing his biography of the artist Picasso, His Life and Work. The story is told mainly using Lee Miller’s own photographs and contains a brief biography of her and Roland Penrose.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Created for Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz at the time of their exhibition Picasso’s Women, 2002.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences.

Bookcover of the Publication - The boy who bit Picasso by Antony PenroseThe Boy Who Bit Picasso
Running time 50 minutes. Short version for Schools at 20 minutes
Approximately 240 digital images on Power Point.
As a child Antony Penrose first met Picasso when he visited the Penrose family home of Farley Farm, in Chiddingly, East Sussex in 1950. They became instant friends and invented their own boisterous game of pretend bull fights. In the excitement Antony bit Picasso, and Picasso bit him right back, but it did not spoil the friendship and during the many visits he made to Picasso’s homes in France Antony felt very much at home. He loved the menagerie of pets – the live ones and those Picasso made as sculptures that seemed alive. Antony’s parents were Roland Penrose, the curator and biographer of Picasso, and Lee Miller, the photographer. Picasso painted her portrait six times and she photographed him more than 1,000 times and her images illustrate Antony’s entertaining and amusing account of life around Picasso. This lecture also covers the process of writing and the design of the book which has been very favourably reviewed and is a best seller.
•    Originally created for Gloucestershire DFAS May 2010, then performed for National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh and Victoria and Albert Museum London.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences and at literary festivals.

Roland Penrose with hand on head, mougins, France 1937 by Lee MillerRoland Penrose – The Friendly Surrealist
60 Minutes. 320 images on Power Point
The man who came from a family of strict Quakers became a key figure in Modern Art in the 20th C, responsible for bringing Surrealism to Britain in 1936 and Picasso to Britain in 1960. He was a Surrealist artist in Paris, a friend of Breton and Éluard and later the close friend and biographer of Max Ernst, Picasso, Miró, Man Ray and Tàpies. He founded the ICA in London and curated exhibitions of work by Picasso (1960) and Miró (1964) at the Tate Gallery. His own work is enjoying a return to prominence following a major retrospective exhibition of his work at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh in 2001 and at Fundacion Picasso Malaga in 2008 and Southampton Art Gallery in 2012. In 1937 he met the American photographer Lee Miller who he married in 1947. This presentation is illustrated with many of her images.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Developed for Haverford College, Pennsylvania.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences.

Picasso, villa la Californie, Cannes, France 1957 by Lee MillerPicasso, Man Ray and Max Ernst
Through the eyes of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose
A personal profile of giant figures in 20th Century art
60 Minutes. 290 images on Power Point.
 “WeDFAS group and all NZDFAS groups are still enthusiastically appreciative of your visits - the best ever!!” Karin Beatson, Programme Secretary Wellington DFAS, New Zealand
"A gem of an evening" Janey Bevington Norwich Contemporary Art Society.
Picasso, Man Ray and Max Ernst were three of the key artists of the 20th Century. They were also close friends the Surrealist photographer Lee Miller and the Surrealist artist Roland Penrose. This is the hidden part of the story of a unique friendship which spanned the Surrealist movement and the last 30 years of Picasso’s life. It is told by Antony Penrose who witnessed some of the events himself, using the words and images of those who were there.
•    Contains war and holocaust images that are highly disturbing
•    Created for Perth DFAS May 2009.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences.


Lee Miller, New York Studio, USA c1932 by Lee MillerHand Grenades Like Cartier Clips
60 minutes. 280 images on Power Point
Two genres shaped the life of Lee Miller, Surrealism and the world of fashion. They informed each other and were both central to the way she saw the world. Her career as a fashion model began with an accidental encounter with Conde Nast, the proprietor of Vogue who put her on his front cover a few weeks before her 20th birthday. She became the model for Lepape, Steichen, Genthe, Man Ray, Hoyningen Heune, Horst, Picasso and Penrose – later to be her husband. She emerged as a fashion photographer in her own right, metamorphosing into a war correspondent and finally a combat photographer before returning to her role as a distinctive and witty photographer for Vogue in the post war years. This presentation shows how Lee Miller’s success on both sides of the camera has left us with enduring images that result from her unique way of seeing.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Created for Societé des amis du Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneva, 2008.
•    Suits an audience with an interest in fashion and photography
•    Toured in UK, New Zealand, Australia and USA

Lee Miller’s Egypt
60 minutes. 280 images on Power Point.
In 1934 Lee Miller, the American Surrealist photographer closed her successful studio in New York, married Aziz Eloui Bey, an Egyptian businessman and settled in Cairo. The easy life of a rich ex-patriot was not for her and she made long range excursions into the desert, photographing the wonders of what seemed to her an eternally Surrealist land. On a visit to Paris in 1937 she met Roland Penrose, a British Surrealist. She later wrote him eloquent letters from Egypt and eventually after travelling with him in the Balkans and Egypt she left Eloui and went to live with him in London just as the war broke out.
This production is based on recent field research work done in Egypt in January 2009 by Antony Penrose with Mark Haworth-Booth the curator of the exhibition The Art of Lee Miller and Joshua Penrose. It draws heavily on Lee Miller’s own photographs and her letters to Roland Penrose. Penrose’s own work inspired by both Lee Miller and by Egypt is also included to complete the narrative of what was one of the most exciting and productive periods in Lee Miller’s life.
•    Created for Drexel University, Philadelphia, 2009
•    Contains war and holocaust images that are highly disturbing
•    Suits an audience with an interest in Egypt and the 1930’s
•    Presented at South Mercia DFAS Study Day January 2011

Man Ray, Paris France 1931 by Lee MillerMan Ray the Magic Man
60 minutes 290 images, Power Point
 “Pitch perfect”  Maia Sutnik, Curator of Photography, Art Gallery of Ontario, Canada

When my father Roland Penrose made his collage titled Homage to Man Ray, he included the pencilled wording HOM MAGE, a pun in French which can be translated as Magic Man. Roland knew that in his photography Man Ray magically transformed light into wonderful Surrealist images, and in his objects everyday things became visual puns, sometimes sinister, sometimes funny, but always provocative. Man Ray was much adored by both my parents and from an early age by me too. He encouraged me to make my own objects and my own puns. I knew he and my mother Lee Miller had been lovers in their youth and their love endured as a deep friendship. There was always a special smile on her face when Man Ray was around. It took me much of my life to discover the history that lay between her, Man Ray and my father. This is the story of Lee Miller’s special smile.
•    Created for Fine Art Museum, San Francisco on the occasion of the symposium for the exhibition Man Ray and Lee Miller, 2012.
•    Contains war and holocaust images that are highly disturbing


Jacequeline Roque, Roland Penrose and Picasso, villa la Californie, Cannes, France 1957 by Lee MillerPicasso Through the Eyes of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose
60 minutes 325 images. Power Point
It began as the casual encounter of two artists on a Provence beach and developed into one of the most powerful synergistic forces in Picasso’s life. Roland Penrose, then a Surrealist artist met Picasso in 1936. A year later he introduced Picasso to the love of his life, the American photographer Lee Miller. Penrose brought Picasso to the incredulous and sometimes hostile British public in his International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936. His biography 1958 Picasso His Life and Work was regarded the definitive work and is still in print, and his Picasso retrospective at the Tate in 1960 was considered to be ‘the show of that century’. Picasso celebrated Lee Miller’s beauty by painting six portrait of her a l’Arlesienne, and she reciprocated by photographing him more than 1,000 times.
Antony Penrose is the son of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose and this talk draws on the material held in the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection of which he is the co-director.

•    Created for the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh on the occasion of their exhibition Picasso and Modern British Art, 2012
•    Contains war and holocaust images that are highly disturbing



Dead guard in canal, concentration camp, Dachau, Germany 1945 by Lee MillerLee Miller’s Indelible Images
55 minutes 290 images, Power Point
'Steel yourself, look and inwardly digest the heaps of the murdered. Think of their innocent lives extinguished, think of the immensity of it and that they represent only a minute fraction of those, from all over Europe, who were exterminated … So let us give support to Antony Penrose, Lee Miller’s son and curator of her photo archive, both of whom I admire for the message they have for us to-day and don’t look away but choose on whose side you are on. “If you have tears, prepare to shed them now” (Julius Ceasar)'
Frank Bright, born Franz Brichta, Ghetto number Di-556, KZ Gross-Rosen number 73 803
Survivor of the Holocaust

What is it that makes an image stick in our memory against our will? People find many of Lee Miller’s combat photographs have this indelible quality, and of these the most powerful are from her witness of the holocaust. Her stark and harrowing evidence takes us back to one of the most terrible episodes of persecution in the whole grim history of man’s inhumanity to man. In this lecture Miller’s son Antony Penrose talks about why his mother responded to the holocaust in the way she did, and the work he has done to authenticate her evidence as a witness – evidence she deliberately left for us in the hope it would help prevent history repeating. When we learn the background, we begin to understand why so many of her images are so poignant, and why they have the ability to engrave themselves in our minds.
•    Created for Holocaust Week at the University of Essex, in connection with The Dora Love Prize and the exhibition Lee Miller’s War at The Art Exchange gallery. 29 January 2014
•    Contains many war and holocaust images which are highly disturbing
•    Not suitable for people under 16 years of age.

Roland Penrose, Downshire Hill, London 1949 by Lee MillerRoland Penrose and the British Surrealists
60 minute version 290 images. Power Point
… a talk so full of passion, which turned the lecture I’d asked for – RP’s route to Surrealism, his ideals, his achievements, friendships – into something that informed both understanding and spirit – many of us were moved by it.
Prue Cooper, The Art Worker’s Guild. London

 In 1922 Roland Penrose went to Paris and became a Surrealist artist. In 1936, following the collapse of his marriage to the poet Valentine Penrose (neé Boué) he returned to London, introducing Surrealism to an incredulous and often hostile British public. With Herbert Read and David Gascoyne he mounted the 1936 International Surrealist Exhibition, and the movement took root in this country. Eileen Agar, John Banting, Paul Nash, Henry Moore, Humphrey Jennings, Conroy Maddox and later Desmond Morris became numbered among Roland’s friends. Reviled and ridiculed at the time, and beset with internal quarrels, the movement made a truly lasting impact on the arts in Britain.
•    Originally created for The Art Workers Guild, November 2014.



Lee Miller's War hardback book coverLee Miller’s War
60 minute version 230 images. Power Point
90 minute performance version in which Ami Bouhassane, Lee Miller’s granddaughter, is the voice of Lee Miller, reading from her original manuscripts and letters.

Lee Miller is thought to be the only woman combat photographer with the allied infantry in Europe during WW II. This lecture presents her war photojournalism from shortly after D Day in Normandy to the flames leaping from Hitler’s Berghof near Berchtesgaden that signalled the end of the war, and the post war traumas of Austria and Hungary. The story is told through extensive use of Lee Miller’s own words set to her photographs.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    A tough and hard hitting production best suited for colleges and history societies.
•    Can be presented as a 90 minute performance piece with Ami Bouhassane, Lee Miller’s granddaughter as the voice of Lee Miller.
•    Often presented by museums in conjunction with a Lee Miller exhibition or as part of a study day

The Funeral Pyre of the Third Reich, the 'Berghof in Flames', Berchtesgaden, Germany 1945 by Lee MillerLee Miller in Bavaria
(Sequel to Lee Miller’s War)
20 minutes 80 images Power Point
At the time of the celebrations of 60th anniversary of V.E. day, Antony Penrose went to the locations photographed by Lee Miller, and re-photographed the same scenes as they are now. The result is a poignant documentary of the healing process of time and of the German nation’s process of coming to terms with its own history.


Picasso's studio, villa la Californie, Cannes, France 1957 by Lee MillerPicasso’s Homes and Studios
Running time 55 minutes. 280 images
As a child Antony accompanied his parents, Lee Miller and Roland Penrose on their many visits to Picasso’s homes in the South of France. He was allowed to wander freely, playing with Picasso’s children, the menagerie of pets and fabulous collection of art works, gaining a unique insight into the man many regard as the greatest artist of all times. Using photographs by Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and a few of his own, Antony takes us on a visit to Picasso’s homes and studios of Villa la Galloise, Mougins, Villa la Californie, Cannes, Chateau Vauvenargues, and Notre Dame de Vie in Mougins, where he died in 1973. We also visit his Paris studio in Rue des Grands Augustins where Lee Miller photographed him on the first day of the liberation of Paris.

•    Originally created for South Mercia DFAS Study Day January 2011
•    Well received as part of a study day


Farley Farm House, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England 1950 by Lee MillerFarley Farm House
55 minutes 255 images
Farley Farm House was the home of Lee Miller and Roland Penrose from 1949 until Roland’s death in 1984. It is now a private museum housing a large collection of modern art and photography, including works by Picasso, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, Man Ray and many others who were personal friends. The house itself is an artwork and in appearance is as close to its original form as possible. This presentation is the story of the house right up to the present day where it is the focus for the many books, films and exhibitions that emanate from the archives and collections.

•    Originally created for Brighton Museum and Art Gallery
•    Well received as part of a study day


The Road to Sitges
Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and Picasso
50 minutes. 340 images on Power Point
This is about a journey that began in pre war Paris and ended in effect in Sitges, near Barcelona with Catalonia as the lens that focuses the activity. It tells of the intimate friendship of Lee Miller, Roland Penrose and Picasso, and their involvement in the Spanish Civil War, WW2 as well as the rich cultural collaboration they created and underscores that art was for them a way of life filled with political and moral significance. It is about a group of people who shared love, passion and loyalties that never died.
•    Contains some war time images which may be disturbing.
•    Created for the seminar accompanying the Lee Miller i Picasso en Privat  exhibition at the Museu Picasso, Barcelona.
•    Very well received by NADFAS audiences with an interest in the history of modern art and Catalonia.

Back-stage at the Lee Miller Archives
50 minutes. 250 images on Power Point
A behind the scenes look at the creation of the Lee Miller Archive which houses more than 60,000 negatives of Lee Miller’s work, 10,000 vintage prints plus manuscripts and ephemera. We see how Lee Miller’s family conserve and disseminate her work and that of Roland Penrose and their collection and their home Farley Farm House which has become a museum from which the archive produces a constant stream of books, films and exhibitions.We see major exhibitions being created, conservation and curatorial work in progress and the administration and financing of the archive which is privately run and supports itself though revenue received from its activities supplying fine prints and intellectual property rights. This story is an attestation to the 35 years of close collaboration we have had with The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, whose expertise and friendly support has been invaluable to us. It is also the human and practical face of running what has become one of the most internationally significant private collections of photography and fine art.

•    Created for Creative Scotland Oxygen 2 Event, Edinburgh 2nd June 2014.
•    Goes well as part of a study day



The Angel and The Fiend
A drama for five voices set to a constant stream of images.
Edited and devised by Antony Penrose

Under Lee Miller’s brave and beautiful exterior there lay a hidden torment which she expressed in these words;

'I was terribly, terribly pretty. I looked like an angel but I was a fiend inside'
Lee Miller

The Angel and the Fiend is a dramatised reading of words taken from original text or dialogue by the characters and set to images edited and written by Lee Miller's son Antony Penrose. This award winning drama has been performed widely in Britain and the US. Antony appears as himself and Lee Miller is played by her granddaughter Ami Bouhassane and the role of the Surrealist photographer Man Ray by James Leighton. Miller’s wartime buddy David E. Scherman is played by Jonathan Bailey and her husband Roland Penrose by David Burrough, who also directs the production.
The Angel and The Fiend has been performed widely in Britain and the USA where when performance by The Chance Theatre it won an award.

*****stars .....one of the most powerful pieces of theatre I have seen in a very long time, a remarkable trip down memory lane, enhanced by voices and pictures from the past. Absolutely incredible.....a tight, emotional and powerful piece, a beautiful collage of photos and memories.
Chris Hislop. Brighton Fringe Review, 7th May 2009

Running time 2 hours including a 20 minute interval.
The Angel and The Fiend is copyright © Antony Penrose 2015 all rights reserved.


A Portrait of Space
A drama for six voices set to imagesWritten and devised by Antony Penrose

The life and loves of Roland Penrose (1900-1984)

 A Portrait of Space tells the story of the life of Roland Penrose, the friend and biographer of Picasso, using words mostly written or spoken by him and his friends, edited to form a witty and emotional narrative. We learn of Penrose’s love of the three key women in his life; Valentine Boué, Lee Miller and Diane Deriaz, his passion as a Surrealist artist and later as a curator and biographer. The Surrealist heyday of the 1920’s is halted by World War 2. Penrose was a camouflage specialist, Miller a combat photographer – and Valentine went to fight with the Free French. After the war Roland rose to prominence as the Picasso’s leading biographer and curator. He and Miller made their home in Sussex at Farley Farm where he died in 1984, still making his famous collages.

A Portrait of Space is the sequel to Antony Penrose’s highly acclaimed and award winning work on his mother, The Angel and The Fiend. Roland Penrose is played by David Burrough who also directs the production. Valentine Penrose is played by Sue Burrough, Ami Bouhassane, Roland Penrose’s, granddaughter plays Lee Miller, James Leighton plays Aziz Eloui Bey, Jonathan Bailey plays Man Ray and Antony appears as himself.

Running time 1 hour and 50 minutes including a 20 minute interval.

A Portrait of Space is copyright © Antony Penrose 2015 all rights reserved.

Publications by Antony Penrose
•    The Lives of Lee Miller by Antony Penrose Thames & Hudson 2012 ISBN 9-780580-275092
•    Lee Miller’s War edited by Antony Penrose, Foreword by David E Scherman. Thames & Hudson 2014 ISBN 978-0-500-29154-2
•    Rolsnd Penrose the Friendly Surrealist by Antony Penrose, Prestel 2001                                                                                          •    The Home of the Surrealists. Antony Penrose. Francis Linccoln 2011, Penrose Film Productions Ltd 2016 ISBN 9-780953 238910
•    Das  Rätsel Lee Miller . Apropos Lee Miller  Verlag Neue Kritik 1995 ISBN 3- 8015-0278-3
•    The Boy Who Bit Picasso by Antony Penrose Thames & Hudson 2010. ISBN 9 780500 238738
•    Miro’s Magic Animals by Antony Penrose Thames & Hudson 2016 ISBN 9 780500 650660

Contributions to other publications
•    The Surrealist and the Photographer Catalogue essay Friends and Raiders. Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, 2001.
•    The Surrealists in Cornwall. Catalogue essay The Boat of Your Body. Falmouth Art Gallery, 2004.
•    Lee Miller: Picasso en Privat. Catalogue essay The Boy that Bit Picasso Museu Picasso Barcelona, 2007.
•    Lee Miller and Picasso. Catalogue essay The Boy that Bit Picasso Camara Municipal de Portimao, 2008.
•    Mirar de Reojo y el Surealismo. Catalogue essay The Interior Life of Roland Penrose. Fondaçion Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Malaga, 2009.
•    Lee Miller. Catalogue Essay Lee Miller, Surrealist at Heart. Mjellby Konstmuseum, Halmstad, 2009.
•    Lee Miller y Picasso Evocación y Recuerdo Catalogue essay The Boy That Bit Picasso. Fundación Picasso Casa Natal, Malaga 2009.
•    Man Ray / Lee Miller: Partners in Surrealism by Phillip Prodger, Lynda Roscoe Hartigan and Antony Penrose. Merrell 2011 ISBN 978-1-8589-4557-6
•    Lee Miller at Farley Farm  Farley Arts Trust 2008 (Extended Captions)ISBN 978-08-9559599-0-5
•    Picasso at Play Farley Arts Trust 2012 (Extended Captions) ISBN 978-0-9559599-3-6
•    Roland Penrose’s Surrealist Camera Farley Arts Trust 2011 (Extended Captions) ISBN 978-0-9559599-2-9
•    A Childhood with Surrealists Catalogue essay Making Things. Falmouth Art Gallery, 2011.
•    Totemic friends. Wifredo Lam, Roland Penrose and other fellow travellers. Galerie Gmurzynska AG, 2011.
•    Dylan Thomas: A Centenary Celebration. Essay Dylan Thomas among the Surrealists. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2014.

Academic Papers
Roland Penrose and the Impulse of Provence for Provence and the British Imagination University of Aix en Provence 2011 
Lee Miller’s Indelible Images for Holocaust Week at the University of Essex 2014
Hemline to Frontline Lee Miller’s wartime role in British Vogue Magazine for The Business of War Photography, University of Durham 2014.

Chronology test


Antony at the beach 

Theodore Miller (1871-1971)

Theodore Miller, the garden at Farley Farm House, Muddles Green, East Sussex, England by Lee Miller

Theodore Miller

Engineer, inventor and amateur photographer.
Born: 3 June 1871 Richmond, Indiana, USA.
Died: 5 May 1971 Poughkeepsie New York, USA.

Theodore MILLER was above all an engineer and an inventor. He had boundless curiosity on all things mechanical and scientific, and loved innovation and change. In his professional life as the Works Superintendent of the De Laval Separator Co in Poughkeepsie he was known for the value he placed on ingenuity. He found it was often the small things that made the biggest differences. This love of intricate details, his fascination with technology and his desire to record events led him naturally to another emerging technology, photography.

Theodore’s first camera in around 1900 was probably George Eastman’s newly produced Box Brownie, which sold for $1 and could be daylight loaded with film costing 15c a roll. He probably began by having his processing and printing done in a lab, and then quickly began doing his own printing and later developing in his home darkroom. He also had access to a larger plate camera but few examples of this work remain.

His first subjects were engineering marvels he admired. The lofty trestle Railroad Bridge across the Hudson River, ships, locomotives and the "First flight in a heavier than air machine", the pioneer Glen Curtis who landed near the Hudson in 1910, all feature. He meticulously pasted his photographs into his albums, and interspersed with the engineering we see the family snaps. Lee’s ‘three month birthday’, lovingly recorded with a typed caption, is part of an ongoing series that commands far more attention than machines or even the other members of the family.

Theodore’s favourite camera was stereoscopic[i] of unknown make. At this point despite the popular success of George Eastman’s Kodak brand, photography was still seen as a technical miracle and Theodore would have enjoyed both the challenge and the social cachet of being in the avant-garde. To achieve the stereoscopic effect each image is simultaneously photographed twice on adjoining negatives and the prints are usually viewed through prisms in a hand held Holmes viewer[ii]. The stereoscopic camera seems to have come into his life around 1920 and remained his preference for the next 20 years. In later life he adopted a 35m/m camera and shot mainly transparencies which he customarily annotated in handwriting now shaky with age.

Theodore can be regarded as a gifted amateur who justified a position of distinction among his contemporaries but whose contribution to photography is mainly remarkable for the fame achieved by the subjects he photographed and the temporal and social changes of their surroundings.

© Antony Penrose 2013.  All rights reserved.

[i] Queen Victoria’s enthusiasm for the stereoscopic photography she saw at the World Fair in 1851 made the technique instantly popular.

[ii] Named after the inventor Oliver Wendell Holmes and first appeared in c.1860.

date description

1871       Born June 3rd in Richmond, Indiana. His father was a bricklayer, descended from Hessian mercenaries fighting for King George during the American Revolution.

c.1890   Became a wood machinist making wooden wheels for roller skates. Took courses in engineering through the International Correspondence School.

1895       Went to Mexico to work in a steel mill in Monterey, contracted typhoid.

1896       Returned to the USA and took a job as foreman of the Merganthaler Linotype Company in Brooklyn, New York, USA.

1901       Appointed general manager to the Utica Drop Forge and Tool Company. Gets apendicitis and in hospital he meets Florence MacDonald, a Canadian nurse at Saint Luke’s Hospital, the daughter of Scottish/Irish settlers born in 1881-1954 in Brockville, Ontario, Canada.

1903       Appointed works superintendent of De Laval Separator Company, with 500 employees founded in 1892 in Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. Becomes member of the Amrita Club.

                Becomes an amateur photographer, photographing bridges, locomotives and his future wife.

1904       10 August: Married Florence MacDonald (who became known as Mimi) in Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. They live at 40 South Clinton St. Theodore builds a darkroom.

1905       15 December: son John Miller born.

1907       23 April: Daughter (Elizabeth) Lee Miller born.

1910       22 May: Son Erik Miller born. Photographs the first airplane flight he witnessed.

1912       Moves to Cedar Hill Farm four miles south of Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.

1915       14 April: takes first nude photograph of Lee Miller in snow titled December Morn.

1916       Begins taking stereoscopic photographs and invents a device for projecting stereoscopic images on a screen.

1921       Moves to Kingwood Park, a large house with some farmland on the outskirts of Poughkeepsie. Theodore moves his darkroom to the small space under the stairs.

1923       Takes Lee with him on a business trip to Puerto Rico to inspect centrifuges used in the sugar industry. Photographs widely.

1925       Lee goes to Paris. Theodore and Florence follow.

1930       25 November: Goes to visit Lee, now in Paris with Man Ray, and goes on to Stockholm with Lee.

1931       Returns to Paris with Lee.  Photographs Man Ray.

1945       Retires from the De Laval Separator Company.

              Gives Kingwood Park to John and moves to South Hamilton Street and then 12 Forbus Street, Poughkeepsie.

1946       Welcomes Lee who visits Poughkeepsie with Roland Penrose as part of her US tour for Conde Nast Vogue Magazine.

1947       Grandson Antony born 9th September to Lee and Roland Penrose.

1948       With Florence visits England to meet grandson.

1954       Florence is diagnosed with cancer and dies 11th September.

1955       Visits Lee and her family in England for three months.

1961       August: Goes to Rome and Venice with Lee.

1963       Visits Lee and her family in England.

1965       Visits Lee and her family in England.

1967       Makes last visit to England aged 95.

1969       Suffers minor stroke. Lee visits him in Poughkeepsie 25th September.

1971       Goes on Caribbean cruise with Lee in January.

5 May:     Death of Theodore in Poughkeepsie only one month before his centenary.


© Antony Penrose 2013 All rights reserved.

A selection of Theodore MILLER's work is available for sale through the Lee Miller Archives Print room.

Andrew Lanyon (1947-)

Andrew Lanyon

Contemporary Artist

Born: 1947, St Ives, Cornwall, England

Son of artist Peter Lanyon, Andrew Lanyon was brought up in West Cornwall.
Although educated at Port Regis and Bryanston he was mainly brought up in his grandfather’s converted darkroom in St Ives. From an early age he developed and printed his own photographs, made using a battered Leica and other improvised equipment. He was influenced by the acute observation of Man Ray, and Cartier Bresson. As a student he visited Man Ray in his Paris studio and took a portrait of him. On seeing the print Man Ray declared it was the photograph of himself he liked the most.
Lanyon studied at the London School of Film Technique and for several years made experimental surrealist inspired films before starting to publish his own books in 1987. His work is in public and private collections including the Victoria & Albert Museum, London and The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Today although he still photographs, he is best known for his paintings and books, many of which contain his photographs.

Selected Solo Painting Exhibitions:

The only non-slip dodo mat in the world, Falmouth Art Gallery, Cornwall 30 Nov 2013 - 01 Feb 2014
A Surrealist Childhood (in collaboration with Antony Penrose) Falmouth Art Gallery, Cornwall 21 Jan – 3 March 2012
New Arts Centre, London 1995-2005
Beaux Arts, Bath 1995 – 2005
Gordon Hepworth, Devon 1995- 2005
Newlyn Orion, Cornwall 1995 -2005
Will’s Lane Gallery, Cornwall 1995 - 2005
Plough Arts Center, Devon 1995 -2005
Thomas Henry Fine Art, London 1995 -2005
The Book Gallery, St Ives 1995
Holsworthy, London 1988
Sheila Harrison, London 1988
Gilbert Parr, London 1981
Marjorie Parr, London 1979
The Rooks of Trelawne at The Photographer’s Gallery, London 1976
Archer Gallery, London 1973


The Rowley Claimant 2017
The Musings of Creatures Imagined in a Barren Land 2016
The only non-slip dodo mat in the world, Falmouth Art Gallery, 2013
Bifurcated Thought, 2013
Exquisite Corpse, 2011
Von Ribbentrop in St Ives ,2011
The Daughters of Radon, 2011
A Fairy Find, 2006
A Persistence of Visions, 2002
Second Nature, 1989
Another ABC With foreword by Rosa Levin, 1989
Dead Pan, 1987
The Vanishing Cabinet, 1981
Roundabout West Cornwall.