Lee Miller (1907-1977)

Model, muse, photographer, artist, war correspondent & gourmet chef.
Born: 23 April 1907, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.
Died: 21 July 1977, Farley Farm House, Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.

Lee MILLER first entered the world of photography in New York as a model to the great photographers of the day such as Edward STEICHEN, HOYNINGEN-HUENE and Arnold GENTHE.

In 1929 she went to Paris and worked with the well known Surrealist artist and photographer Man RAY, and succeeded in establishing her own studio. She became known as a portraitist and fashion photographer, but her most enduring body of work is that of her Surrealist images. She returned to New York in 1932, and again set up her own studio which ran for 2 years and was highly successful. It closed when she married a wealthy Egyptian businessman Aziz ELOUI BEY and went to live with him in Cairo, Egypt. She became fascinated by long range desert travel and photographed desert villages and ruins. During a visit to Paris in 1937 she met Roland PENROSE, the Surrealist artist who was to become her second husband, and travelled with him to Greece and Romania. In 1939 she left Egypt for London shortly before World War II broke out. She moved in with Roland PENROSE and defying orders from the US Embassy to return to America she took a job as a freelance photographer on Vogue.

In 1944 she became a correspondent accredited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy.

After the war she continued to contribute to Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion and celebrities. In 1947 she married Roland PENROSE and contributed to his biographies of PICASSO, MIRÓ, Man RAY and TÀPIES. Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that she is best remembered.

Lee Miller died at Farley Farm House in 1977.


1907 Born Poughkeepsie, New York, on 23 April to Florence and Theodore MILLER. Brother John born 1905.
1910 Brother Erik born, Poughkeepsie, New York.
1914 Sexually molested and infected with VD.
1925 30 May, departs for Paris with chaperon to attend L'Ecole Medgyes pour la Technique du Theatre.
1926 Winter, dragged home by Theodore MILLER.
1927 Discovered by Conde NASTE. Portrait of her by George LEPAPE appears on front cover of Vogue, March 1927. Photographed by STEICHEN, GENTHE, MURAY, with numerous appearances in magazines.
1928 July, image used as Kotex Ad in Vogue and other magazines.
1929 Departs for Paris, then to Florence and Rome to study art. Returns to Paris, meets Man RAY and becomes his student, model and lover.
1930 Establishes herself as a photographer in her own right with studio at Rue Victor Considrante.
Erik MILLER visits Lee MILLER in Paris.
Stars in Jean COCTEAU's film Blood of a Poet.
December, Theodore MILLER visits Lee in Paris and they travel to Stockholm.
1931 Visits London to do stills work at Elstree Studios for 1 July issue of the Bioscope and photographs sports clothes for June issue of Vogue.
Exhibits at Group Annuel des Photographes, Galerie to la Pleiade, Paris, France.
Meets Aziz ELOUI BEY.
1932 20 February - 11 March, first exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA.
Azizs wife Nimet commits suicide.
Lee MILLER parts from Man RAY and closes her studio, returning to New York in November.
30 December - 25 January, 2nd exhibition at Julien Levy Gallery, Modern European Photography.
On arrival in New York sets up own studio at 8 East 48th street, New York.
1933 Meets and photographs John HOUSEMAN, Virgil THOMPSON, Joseph CORNELL, Gertrude LAWRENCE and other celebrities; 22 August, Erik MILLER marries Mary Frances ROWLEY, known as Mafy.
1934 19 July, marries Aziz ELOUI BEY and after a honeymoon at Niagra Falls, leaves to live in Egypt. Erik packs up studio.
1936 Resumes photographing for pleasure on trips to the desert in Egypt.
1937 4 March, Erik and Mafy MILLER arrive in Cairo to work for Aziz ELOUI BEY's company, the agency for Carrier air conditioning.
Early summer, goes to Paris and meets Roland PENROSE. Travels with him to England and then to Mougins, France to holiday with Man RAY, PICASSO, Eileen AGAR and the ELUARDs.
1938 Meets Roland PENROSE in Athens, and travels with him through the Balkans photographing village life in remote areas. Returns via Beirut.
1939 Roland PENROSE visits Lee MILLER in Asyut, Egypt, and they travel to Siwa and other oasis villages.
2 June, parts amicably from Aziz ELOUI BEY and sails to London. Moves in with Roland PENROSE. They travel to the south of France to visit Max ERNST and Leonora CARRINGTON, then return to England on the outbreak of war.
1940 January, lives with Roland PENROSE at 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead. Contributes to Vogue. Photographs fashion and scenes from the Blitz, later to be used in Grim Glory; Pictures of Britain under Fire, published in Britain and the United States.
David E. SCHERMAN arrives in England as Life photographer, and moves into Downshire Hill.
1942 30 December, becomes accredited as U.S. Forces War Correspondent. Photographs for her book Wrens in Camera.
1944 First photo-journalism article published on Edward R. MURROW in Vogue, followed by 'Unarmed Warriors' September 1944, St. Malo October 1944.
Teams up with David E. SCHERMAN, publishes further Vogue stories.
'The Way Things Are In Paris' November 1944
'Loire Bridges' November 1944
'Players in Paris' December 1944
'Patterns of Liberation' January 1945
'Brussels' - More British than London' February 1945
'Colette' March 1945
'Through the Alsace Campaign' April 1945
'Scales of Justices' June 1945
'Germany - the war that is won' June 1945
'Hitleriana' July 1945
'In Denmark Now' July 1945
1945 Vienna, covers children dying in hospital.
1946 Budapest, covers plight of deposed aristocrats, execution of Lazlo Bardossy, rural areas such as Mezokovesd, and celebrities such as STROBEL, SZENTGYORGI, etc.
On to Bucharest, Romania; photographing King and Queen Mother, gets massaged by a bear, wrecks car near Sibiu.
In the spring returns home via Paris to a heroines welcome from Vogue staff.
Travels with Roland PENROSE to USA.
Photographs Isamu NOGUCHI in New York.
They travel to Arizona and visit Max ERNST and Dorothea TANNING, then to Los Angeles to visit Erik and Mafy MILLER (Erik now chief photographer for Lockheed Aircraft Corporation) and Man RAY and Juliette BROWNER, soon to become wife. Return to England, too Europeanized to comfortably settle in U.S.A.
1947 Does fashion assignment in St. Mortiz with Peggy RILEY (later Rosamond RUSSELL) and discovers she is pregnant. Moves across the street to 36 Downshire Hill.
Aziz ELOUI BEY travels to England and divorces Lee MILLER. Registry office.
9 September, gives birth to son Antony and writes on the experience for December 1947 issue of Vogue.
1948 Covers Venice Beinnale for August Vogue.
1949 Writes about the Institute of Contemporary Arts exhibition, Forty Thousand Years of Modern Art for January Vogue.
Farley Farm purchased.
1951 Writes on exhibition covering Picassos birthday for November issue of Vogue.
1953 Writes and photographs life at Farley Farm for "Working Guest", July issue of Vogue.
1954 Photographs for Roland Penrose's book "Picasso, His Life and Work".
1955 Exhibits in the Family of Man, Museum of Modern Art, New York (and world tour).
1960 Becomes passionately interested in cooking.
1963 Goes to Egypt to meet Aziz ELOUI BEY.
1966 Becomes Lady Lee PENROSE when Roland is knighted.
Articles about Lee appear in Vogue, Studio International, and House and Garden.
Travels extensively with Roland PENROSE to Japan, Spain, etc.
1973 Photographs Antoni TÀPIES for Roland PENROSE's biography of him.
1976 July, guest of Lucien CLERGUE at the Arles Photo Festival, deputizing for Man RAY.
Exhibits in Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection, Art Institute of Chicago.
Diagnosed as having cancer.
1977 Granddaughter, Ami, born 25 April.
Exhibits in The History of Fashion Photography, organised by the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, USA.
Dies Farley Farm House, July 21.
11/06/2011 - 04/12/2011 Man Ray|Lee Miller, Partners in Surrealism
06/10/1986 - 10/11/1986 11th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - The Arts Centre, Darlington, England.
01/08/1986 - 01/09/1986 10th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Leeds City Gallery, Leeds, England.
01/07/1986 - 31/07/1986 9th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Chesil Gallery Chiswell, Dorset, England.
01/01/1986 - 01/02/1986 Lee Miller - Photographers Gallery, London, England.
20/11/1985 - 17/12/1985 8th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Ramsgate Library, England.
01/11/1985 - 01/02/1986 The Lives of Lee Miller - Staley-Wise Gallery, New York, USA.
20/07/1985 - 17/08/1985 7th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Worthing Museum and Art Gallery Worthing, England.
13/04/1985 - 26/05/1985 6th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - South Hill Park, Bracknell, England.
12/01/1985 - 17/02/1985 4th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Southampton Municipal Gallery, Southampton, England.
07/10/1984 - 02/12/1984 3rd Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, England.
01/06/1984 - 01/07/1984 2nd Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Hastings Photo Gallery, St Leonards on Sea, England.
01/05/1984 Picassos Gaze - Photographers Gallery London + Tour of England.
01/05/1984 1st Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Gardner Centre, Falmer, England.
01/02/1978 Lee Miller - Mayor Gallery, London, England.
01/01/1933 Julien Levy Gallery, USA.
01/01/1900 - 01/02/1900 5th Venue - Lee Miller in Sussex - Royal Museum and Art Gallery, Canterbury, England.

23/09/2009 - 11/01/2010

Subversion des Images - Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.
01/09/1997 - 01/11/1997 A History of Women Photographers  - Akron Art Museum Akron, Ohio, USA.
01/06/1997 - 01/08/1997 A History of Women Photographers - Santa Barbara Museum of Modern Art Santa Barbara, California, USA.
01/02/1997 - 01/11/1997 Forties Fashion and the New Look - Imperial War Museum, London, England.
01/02/1997 - 01/05/1997 A History of Women Photographers - The National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington DC, USA.
01/10/1996 - 01/01/1997 A History of Women Photographers - The New York Public Library, New York, USA.
01/12/1996 - 01/03/1997 Bunuel. La mirada del siglo  - Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes ,Mexico.
01/07/1996 - 01/10/1996 Bunuel. La mirada del siglo - Museo Nacional Centro de Arte, Madrid.
01/05/1996 - 01/09/1996 Les trois grandes Égyptiennes  - Musée de la Photographie a Charleroi, Charleroi, France.
01/04/1996 - 01/09/1996 Die Gesichter von Paul Eluard Max Ernst - Kabinett , Bruhl, Germany.
01/12/1995 - 01/03/1996 Visages d'Eluard  - Musée dart et dhistoire de Saint Denis, Paris, France.
01/02/1996 - 01/04/1996 The Lost Bodies  - Photography and Surrealists Centre Cultural, Barcelona, Spain.
01/11/1995 - 01/01/1996 The Lost Bodies  - Photography and Surrealists Fundación "la Caixa" ,Madrid, Spain.
01/09/1995 - 01/10/1995 Der Rhein, Le Rhin - De Waal Rheinishes Landesmuseum, Bonn, Germany.
01/05/1995 - 01/08/1995 Ende und Aufgang, Photographen in Deutschland um 1945 - Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, Germany.
01/04/1995 Workday in Ruins Leipzig, 1945-49 - Stadtgeschichtliches Museum, Leipzig, Germany.
01/04/1995 Buchenwald Liberation 1945 - Gedenkstätte Buchenwald, Germany.
01/03/1995 Cologne Liberation 1945 - Historisches Archiv der Stadt, Köln, Germany.
01/01/1994 The Vital Link WRNS role in the D-Day operations  - Royal Navy Museum, Portsmouth, England.
01/01/1994 St Malo Liberation 50yrs Commemoration - St Malo, France.
01/06/1994 Dachau Liberation 1945 - KZ Gedenkstätte Dachau, Germany.
01/01/1992 Vogue 75th Anniversary - Redfern Gallery, London, England
01/01/1991 Vogue 75th Anniversary - Royal College of Art, London, England.
01/01/1991 Max Ernst Centenary Exhibition - Stadt Bruhl, Germany.
01/01/1991 Max Ernst -  Fischer Fine Art, London, England.
01/01/1990 Lee Miller in Eastern Europe - Staley-Wise, New York, USA.
01/01/1990 La Femme et le Surrealisme - Parco, Tokyo, Japan.
01/01/1989 La Femme et le Surrealisme - Chesil Gallery, Chiswell, Dorset, England.
01/01/1989 La Femme et le Surrealisme - Zelda Cheatle Gallery, London, England.
01/11/1987 - 01/02/1988 La Femme et le Surrealisme - Musée Cantonal des Beaux Arts, Lausanne, Switzerland.
01/01/1987 Contrariwise - Glyn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, England.
01/01/1986 Surrealism in England - Baruch College Gallery, New York, USA.
01/01/1986 Surrealism in England - Herbert Read Gallery, Canterbury, England.
01/01/1986 Animal in Photography - The Photographers Gallery, London, England.
01/01/1986 The Indelible Image - Mayor Gallery, London, England.
01/01/1986 The Indelible Image - Musée Cantini, Marseille, France.
01/01/1985 - 01/01/1986 The Indelible Image - Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. also travelled to Grey Gallery, New York, the Rice Museum, University of Texas, Houston, USA.
01/01/1985 - 01/01/1986 LAmour Fou: Photography and Surrealism  - Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. also travelled to San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, USA and Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France and Hayward Gallery, London.
01/12/1982 - 01/01/1983 Atelier Man Ray 1920-1935 - Centre George Pompidou, Paris, France.
01/01/1978 Dada and Surrealism Reviewed - Hayward Gallery, London, England.
01/01/1977 - 01/01/1978 The History of Fashion Photography - International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York (traveled to Brooklyn Museum of Fine Art, St. Petersburg, Florida),USA.
01/01/1976 Photographs from the Julien Levy Collection - Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, USA.
01/01/1955 The Family of Man - Museum of Modern Art, New York (and world tour).
01/01/1932 Modern European Photography - Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA.
01/01/1931 Group Annuel des Photographes - Galerie de la Pleiade, Paris, France.

Lee Miller has work in:
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England.
New Orleans

Dealers Galleries

Listed are the Galleries around the World that have been appointed to represent the Lee Miller Archives and hold portfolios of Lee Millers photographs.

Lee Miller Archives
Farley Farm House (Lee Miller\s home 1947 to 1977)
Tel: ++44 (0) 1825 872 691
Fax: ++44 (0) 1825 872 733
Email: images@leemiller.co.uk
Website: www.leemiller.co.uk

UK Dealers

Zoe Bingham Fine Art (by appointment only)
22 John Street
Tel: ++44 (0)7920 520 777
Email: info@zoebingham.com
Website: www.zoebingham.com

European Dealers

Gallery Vassie
Langestraat 47
Tel: ++31 (0) 685 724 797
Email: info@galleryvassie.com
Website: www.galleryvassie.com
Cokkie Snoei Gallery
Mauritsweg 55
3012 JX Rotterdam
Tel/Fax: ++31 (0) 10 41 29 274
Email: info@cokkiesnoei.com
Website: www.cokkiesnoei.com
Clair Gallery - France
° CLAIR Galerie
1, Rue de la Tour
F-06570 Saint Paul de Vence
Tel: ++33.(0)4.93 58 63 32
Email: info@clair.me
Website: www.clair.me
Clair Gallery - Germany
° CLAIR Galerie und Kunsthandel ein Unternehmen der Circles GmbH
Franz-Joseph-Str. 10 D-80801 München
Tel: ++49.(0)89.386674-42/46
Email: info@clair.me
Website: www.clair.me

USA Dealers

Staley-Wise Gallery
560 Broadway
New York
NY 10012
Tel: 001 212 966 6223
Email: photo@staleywise.com
Website: www.staleywise.com

Roland Penrose (1900-1984)

English Surrealist painter, photographer, poet and biographer of Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Man Ray and Antoni Tàpies, major promoter and collector of modern art . 
Born: 14 October 1900, St Johns Wood, London, England. 
Died: 23 April 1984, Farley Farm House,Muddles Green, Chiddingy, East Sussex, England. 
Roland is best known as a Surrealist artist and for his biography of his friend PICASSO, 'Picasso – his life and work' (1958), followed by books on MIRÓ (1970) Man RAY (1975) TÀPIES (1978), and his autobiography 'Scrap Book, 1900 - 1981', (1981). He organised the massive and highly acclaimed Picasso exhibition for the Tate Gallery in 1960, followed by other key exhibitions at the Tate and major galleries. He co-founded the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art) in 1947 but returned to painting in the last decade of his life, with exhibitions of his recent collages in London, Paris and Brighton.
The son of a Victorian portrait painter, Roland moved to France where he lived from 1922 to 1936. He joined the Surrealist movement in Paris, and on his return to London in 1936 he organised the International Surrealist Exhibition with the poet David GASCOIGNE. This led to the establishment of an English Surrealist movement in which he became a leading artist. His early painting was much influenced by Max ERNST, from whom he learned the techniques of collage and frottage, but it was the cubism of BRAQUE and PICASSO that gave him the key to his distinctive postcard collages. He used postcards with banal images in rhythmic patterns to produce patches of colour and unexpected new forms.
For Roland photography was more an art in itself and also an aide memoire than a means of recording people and places. Some of his photographs provide source material for drawings or paintings while others explore the Surrealist penchant in finding the marvellous in the everyday. His shots are often quirky observations and suggest an innate rebellion against conventional portraits and landscapes. His friends and surroundings appear in a humorous style with some excellent portraits. It was the influence of Lee MILLER who he met in 1937 that inspired his most exciting photography, mainly during their travels in Greece and Romania in 1938. Some images are documentary, of Roma gypsies or the funeral of a peasant child, taken with distinctive penetration and compassion. Most are Surrealist found images and he used both styles in his book titled 'The Road is Wider Than Long' – an image diary of the Balkans July – August 1938.
Roland’s first camera in about 1926 was probably a Kodak Brownie producing 2¼x3¼ negatives on 120 film. By 1934 he had a 35m/m camera and although he occasionally returned to medium format this remained his preference. He did not print or develop his own photos. Estimated at 2,500 negatives his photographic work remains at The Lee Miller Archives.
Antony PENROSE, with thanks to Michael SWEENEY for his original research on Roland PENROSE.
copyright Antony Penrose 2013. All rights reserved.


1900 Born 14 October: St John’s Wood, London.
1903 Third brother Bernard (Beacus) born.
1908 Family move to Oxhey Grange in Watford, London, England.
1918 Joins Red Cross Ambulance Unit in Italy.
1919 18 January: Enrols at Queens’ College Cambridge to study architecture.
1920 Meets Maynard KEYNES and Roger FRY at Cambridge.

17 June: Graduates from Cambridge, B.A., 1st in Architecture.
Goes to Paris to study painting with André LHOTE.
Meets Georges BRAQUE and Yanko VARDA, a Greek modernist painter.

1923 Goes to Cassis-sur-Mer with VARDA and buys Villa les Mimosas.
  Builds studio with VARDA.
1924 Meets Valentine BOUÉ.
  Becomes interested in Surrealist movement.
1925 21 December: Marries Valentine at Jordan's Meeting House, Watford, London, England.
1926 Three of Valentine’s poems published in August edition of Les Cahiers du Sud,  Edited by Jean BALLARD.
1927 First visit with Valentine to Egypt over Christmas with Bonamy DOBRÉE.
  Meets Count GALARZA.
1928 Buys flat in Paris 8, Rue des Sts.Pères, France.
  Roland meets Max ERNST and Joan MIRÓ.
  14-29 June: Roland’s first one man show at Galerie Van Leer, Montparnasse, France.
  Summer holiday with Max ERNST at La Noblesse, La Cadière d’Azur.
  Second visit with Valentine to Egypt to meet GALARZA.
1929 Returns to Paris via Middle East and Greece.
  Roland becomes friends with Paul ÉLUARD, André BRETON and other Surrealists.
1930 Small role in BUNUEL’s film L’Age d’Or.
  Death of Roland’s mother.
  26 November: Buys Château Le Pouy near Condom sur Baise, France Valentine's home town.
1932 2 January: Roland’s father dies.
  Valentine studies Sanskrit at the Sorbonne.
  Roland and Valentine visit India.
1933 Walking trips with Valentine and friends in the Pyrenees.
  Roland plans visit to JUNG with Valentine.
1934 Sponsors publication of Max ERNST’s Une Semaine de Bonté.
  Finances BRESSON’s film Les Affaires Publiques.
  Roland and Valentine separate.
1935 30 July: Sells Chateau de Pouy.
  Returns to London and rents flat in Rossmore Court.
  Valentine goes to India.
  Meets David GASCOYNE in Paris: they decide to bring Surrealism to London.
1936 Moves to 21 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, England.
  Organises International Surrealist Exhibition in London with David GASCOYNE, Herbert READ and others.
  On ÉLUARD's invitation visits Mougins with Valentine and meets PICASSO and Dora MAAR and others.
  Visits Republican Spain with Valentine, ZERVOS, and GASCOYNE and photographs Republican troops and marches in the Ramblas.
1937 March: ÉLUARD assists Roland’s acquisition of 'Nu sur la Plage' from PICASSO (on loan to Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh). 
  June: Meets Lee MILLER in Paris, and goes with her to Cornwall and Mougins. Cornish party includes Paul and Nusch Éluard, Max ERNST and Leonora CARRINGTON, Man RAY and Ady FIDELIN, Eileen AGAR and Joseph BARD, Henry and Irena MOORE. Mougins party the same less ERNST and CARRINGTON but plus PICASSO and Dora MAAR.
  August: PICASSO paints portrait of 'Lee Miller a L’Arlesienne', later acquired by Roland (on loan to Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh).
  Roland makes first postcard collages.
  Acquires Weeping Woman from PICASSO (Coll. Tate Britain).
  Acquires Rene GAFFÉ’s collection .
  Acquires 'Mother and Child' by Henry MOORE, (Coll. Leeds City Art Gallery).
  Exhibits in Surrealist Objects and Poems exhibition, London Gallery.
1938 Exhibits in Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris.
  Buys London Gallery.  Re-opens April 1st with MAGRITTE exhibition.
  Acquires ÉLUARD collection.
  Visits Balkans with Lee – writes The Road is Wider Than Long which he illustrates extensively with his own photographs.
  Curates touring exhibition of PICASSO’s 'Guernica' in Britain.
  12 December: Files for divorce from Valentine.
1939 Goes to Egypt to visit Lee.
  June: The Road is Wider than Long published by the London Gallery.
  19 June: Divorce from Valentine becomes absolute.
  Lee MILLER moves in to 21 Downshire Hill, London, England.
  Exhibition at Mayor Gallery with Ithell COLQUHOUN. 
  London Gallery closes.
  August: Lee MILLER joins him in London. They make a last visit to France to see ERNST, CARRINGTON, Man RAY, Ady FIDELIN and PICASSO.
  War breaks out.
  Contributes two works to United Artists exhibition at the Royal Academy.
  Roland joins The Industrial Camouflage Research Unit.
  Lee goes to work for Vogue magazine as a freelance photographer.
1940 Exhibition Surrealism Today at the Zwemmer Gallery, in June.
  London Blitz – Roland works as Air Raid Warden.
  Valentine returns from India and moves in to 21 Downshire Hill, London, England.
1941 David E. Scherman war correspondenet for LIFE magazine arrives in England.
  September: Roland enlists in Home Guard.
1942 30 December: Lee accredited as War Correspondent contributing to Vogue magazine.
1943 July: Roland commissioned as Captain in Regular Army, runs Eastern Command School of Camouflage based in the Assembly Rooms, Norwich.
1944 July: Lee goes to Europe as a freelance War Correspondent and becomes a combat photographer.
  Roland goes to Paris after liberation, re-unites with Lee, PICASSO, ÉLUARD and other survivors, gathers material for book of collected poems titled In The Service of the People. 
1945 Lee and SCHERMAN photograph Nazi death camps.
1946 Roland demobilised from Army.
  Creates organisation with Herbert READ that will become the ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art).
  Lee returns to Roland after reporting from Eastern Europe.
  Roland and Lee visit New York, Arizona and California.
  London Gallery re-opened.
  28 November: Death of Nusch ÉLUARD.
1947 Moves to 36 Downshire Hill.
  Roland and Lee marry.
  Contributes to Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme in Paris, France.
  9 September: Birth of son, Antony.
1948 ICA first exhibition 40 Years of Modern Art.
  Acquires 'Kneeling Woman' commissioned from F. E. MCWILLIAM.
  Meets Diane DERIAZ.
1949 ICA exhibition 40,000 Years of Modern Art.
  Buys Farley Farm in Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.
  Sells 36 Downshire Hill and moves to 11A Hornton Street, Kensington, London, England.
  Roland has one man show at London Gallery.
1950 London Gallery closes.
  ICA gallery and offices open in Dover Street, London, England.
  Buys Farley Farm in Muddles Green, Chiddingly, East Sussex, England.
  November: PICASSO’s visit to England.
1951 Patsy MURRAY comes to Farley Farm.
  Visit to St Tropez for wedding of Paul and Dominique ÉLUARD.
  ICA exhibition Picasso. Drawings and Watercolours since 1893.
1952 18 November: Paul ÉLUARD dies.
1954 Commissioned by Victor GOLLANCZ to write ‘Picasso, His Life and Work’.
1956 ICA exhibition Picasso Himself.
  'Portrait of Picasso' published'.
  Roland becomes Fine Arts officer in Paris for British Council.
1958 Picasso, His Life and Work’ published by GOLLANCZ.
1959 Appointed Trustee of the Tate Gallery.
1960 Curates 'Picasso’ Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
  Awarded C.B.E. for services to contemporary art.
1961 Curates Max Ernst Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
  Successfully negotiates for the purchase of Picasso’s ’Three Dancers’ by the Tate Gallery.
1964 Curates Miró Arts Council exhibition at the Tate Gallery.
1966 Receives knighthood.
  ICA begins move to Carlton House Terrace.  First Sotheby’s fund raising auction.
  Buys Burgh Hill Farm, adjoining Farley Farm.
1967 Picasso Sculpture Arts Council exhibition at the Tate.
  Second Sotheby’s auction.
1968 ICA opens in Carlton House Terrace.
1969 Paintings stolen from 11A Hornton Street, London, England.
  Becomes President of the ICA.
1970 ‘Miró’ monograph published.
1971 Antony and friends leave to drive around the world on Muddles Green Overland Trek.
1973 Death of PICASSO.
  Co-curates Illusion in Nature and Art exhibition at the ICA.
  24 October: Antony and Suzanna HARBORD marry in New Zealand.
1974 Founds The Elephant Trust to encourage emerging artists.
  Roland and Lee go to New York for Man Ray and Max Ernst exhibition.
  Muddles Overland Trek returns with Antony and Suzanna.
1975 Curates Man Ray. Inventor, Painter, Poet exhibition at the ICA.
  Man Ray’  monograph published in London.
1976 Curates Max Ernst. Prints, Collages and Drawings 1919–1972 exhibition at the ICA.  
  Roland resigns from the ICA.
  Death of Max Ernst.
  Death of Man Ray.
1977 Appointed to selection committee for Picasso’s dation.
  Birth of grand daughter Ami Valentine.
  'Tàpies’  monograph published in Barcelona.
  27 July: Death of Lee.
1978 Member of exhibition committe and contributor toDada and Surrealism Reviewed exhibition at the Hayward Gallery.
  Tàpies’ monograph published in London.
  Death of Valentine.
1979 Visitis Bomarzo, Italy with Diane DERIAZ.
  Birth of grand daughter Eliza Mary.
1980 Roland Penrose Arts Council Retrospective exhibition tours Britain.
  ‘The Road is Wider Than Long’ reprinted by The Arts Council.
  Roland returns to ICA as ‘Honorary President’.
  Honorary doctorate conferred by the University of Sussex.
1981 26 February to 29 March: Roland Penrose Arts Council Retrospective exhibition at Fundació Joan Miró, Barceloana.
  Visits Siri Lanka with Diane DERIAZ.
  Scrap Book 1900–1981’, Roland’s autobiography published.
  Picasso’s Picassos exhibition at the Tate.
1982 Visits Trouville, France, with Diane DERIAZ.
  12 November - 30 December Roland Penrose, Collages Récents exhibition at the Galerie Henriette Gomis Paris, France.
1983 Visits Malindi, Kenya, with Diane DERIAZ.
  Roland Penrose, Recent Collages at the Mayor Gallery.
1984 January: Visits Seychelles with Diane DERIAZ.
  23 April: Roland dies at Farley Farm House.
  Roland Penrose Recent Collages and Lee Miller in Sussex exhibitions at Gardner Arts Centre, Brighton soon after Roland's death. It was their first combined exhibition.

Roland Penrose has work in the following collections:

Victoria & Albert Museum, London, England.

Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, Yorkshire, England.

Southampton City Art Gallery, England.

The Tate, London, England.

Roland Penrose as an Artist & photographer is represented by:

UK Dealers

The Penrose Collection & the Lee Miller Archives
Farley Farm House (his home from 1947-1984)
Muddles Green, Chiddingly
East Sussex
Tel: ++44 (0) 1825 872 691
Fax: ++44 (0) 1825 872 733
Email: images@leemiller.co.uk
Website: www.leemiller.co.uk & www.rolandpenrose.co.uk
The Mayor Gallery
22A Cork Street
Tel: ++44 (0)20 773 43558
Fax: ++44 (0)20 774 941377
Website: www.themayorgallery.com

Antony Penrose (1947-)

Film maker, photographer, author, artist, photo curator, co-founder of the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection.
Born: 9 September 1947, London, England.

Antony's photographic career began at an early age when peering through the view finder of his mother Lee MILLER's Rolleiflex camera. He says he could not understand why the image he saw in colour returned in black and white, and that was the beginning of his fascination with the medium.

His mother was a good mentor. At the age of 14 a family visit to PICASSO produced some amateur images which later became widely published. On a trip to Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1962 she was taken ill and handed him her Zeiss Contax to get the pictures she could not take. She explained the working of the light meter and advised, "If you drop the camera I will break your neck". Only recently have any of those pictures been published, which reminds us that the historical content of a photograph can compensate for the photographer's lack of expertise. Later images from the 1960’s of artists such as PICASSO, Joan MIRÓ and Man RAY are now widely known.

Antony's first camera was a Kodak using 121 film to make 1 1/4 " square negatives. Later Antony used mainly 35m/m and medium format and today shoots digital and DVD but is still nostalgic about analogue.

Initially photography supported his journalism for Farmers Weekly magazine, particularly during his 3¼ year circumnavigation of the world in a Land-Rover with his lifelong friend Robert BRADEN.

Peter BUCKNALLl of Athos Films gave Antony his break into 16 m/m film making working on Kings Horses and Migrate to Survive. These documentaries about horses were both shot in Iran and led to Antony establishing Penrose Film Productions Ltd., with 18 produced credits for documentaries, technical films and drama shorts.

Antony's photography continued as production stills, documentary and occasional fashion work with subjects including farming, forestry, contemporary dance, portraits and his sequences on windows and trees. With the rise of the Lee Miller Archives and The Penrose Collection much of his work was shooting copy work or documentary connected to the collections, and for inclusion in his lectures on the international circuit. His work comprises about 15,000 images and is housed by The Penrose Collection & the Lee Miller Archives.

His main activity is writing and lecturing on photography and fine art.

Antony Penrose

(C) Antony Penrose 2013 All rights reserved


Andrew Lanyon (1947-)


Andrew Lanyon a compermporary artist.

Childhood friend of Antony Penrose and photographer of Man Ray and other artists in the cirlce of Lee Miller & Roland Penrose.

Theodore Miller (1871-1971)

Engineer, inventor and amateur photographer.
Born: 3 June 1871 Richmond, Indiana, USA.
Died: 5 May 1971 Poughkeepsie New York, USA.

Theodore MILLER was above all an engineer and an inventor. He had boundless curiosity on all things mechanical and scientific, and loved innovation and change. In his professional life as the Works Superintendent of the De Laval Separator Co in Poughkeepsie he was known for the value he placed on ingenuity. He found it was often the small things that made the biggest differences. This love of intricate details, his fascination with technology and his desire to record events led him naturally to another emerging technology, photography.

Theodore’s first camera in around 1900 was probably George Eastman’s newly produced Box Brownie, which sold for $1 and could be daylight loaded with film costing 15c a roll. He probably began by having his processing and printing done in a lab, and then quickly began doing his own printing and later developing in his home darkroom. He also had access to a larger plate camera but few examples of this work remain.

His first subjects were engineering marvels he admired. The lofty trestle Railroad Bridge across the Hudson River, ships, locomotives and the "First flight in a heavier than air machine", the pioneer Glen Curtis who landed near the Hudson in 1910, all feature. He meticulously pasted his photographs into his albums, and interspersed with the engineering we see the family snaps. Lee’s ‘three month birthday’, lovingly recorded with a typed caption, is part of an ongoing series that commands far more attention than machines or even the other members of the family.

Theodore’s favourite camera was stereoscopic[i] of unknown make. At this point despite the popular success of George Eastman’s Kodak brand, photography was still seen as a technical miracle and Theodore would have enjoyed both the challenge and the social cachet of being in the avant-garde. To achieve the stereoscopic effect each image is simultaneously photographed twice on adjoining negatives and the prints are usually viewed through prisms in a hand held Holmes viewer[ii]. The stereoscopic camera seems to have come into his life around 1920 and remained his preference for the next 20 years. In later life he adopted a 35m/m camera and shot mainly transparencies which he customarily annotated in handwriting now shaky with age.

Theodore can be regarded as a gifted amateur who justified a position of distinction among his contemporaries but whose contribution to photography is mainly remarkable for the fame achieved by the subjects he photographed and the temporal and social changes of their surroundings.

© Antony Penrose 2013.  All rights reserved.

[i] Queen Victoria’s enthusiasm for the stereoscopic photography she saw at the World Fair in 1851 made the technique instantly popular.

[ii] Named after the inventor Oliver Wendell Holmes and first appeared in c.1860.

date description

1871       Born June 3rd in Richmond, Indiana. His father was a bricklayer, descended from Hessian mercenaries fighting for King George during the American Revolution.

c.1890   Became a wood machinist making wooden wheels for roller skates. Took courses in engineering through the International Correspondence School.

1895       Went to Mexico to work in a steel mill in Monterey, contracted typhoid.

1896       Returned to the USA and took a job as foreman of the Merganthaler Linotype Company in Brooklyn, New York, USA.

1901       Appointed general manager to the Utica Drop Forge and Tool Company. Gets apendicitis and in hospital he meets Florence MacDonald, a Canadian nurse at Saint Luke’s Hospital, the daughter of Scottish/Irish settlers born in 1881-1954 in Brockville, Ontario, Canada.

1903       Appointed works superintendent of De Laval Separator Company, with 500 employees founded in 1892 in Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. Becomes member of the Amrita Club.

                Becomes an amateur photographer, photographing bridges, locomotives and his future wife.

1904       10 August: Married Florence MacDonald (who became known as Mimi) in Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. They live at 40 South Clinton St. Theodore builds a darkroom.

1905       15 December: son John Miller born.

1907       23 April: Daughter (Elizabeth) Lee Miller born.

1910       22 May: Son Erik Miller born. Photographs the first airplane flight he witnessed.

1912       Moves to Cedar Hill Farm four miles south of Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.

1915       14 April: takes first nude photograph of Lee Miller in snow titled December Morn.

1916       Begins taking stereoscopic photographs and invents a device for projecting stereoscopic images on a screen.

1921       Moves to Kingwood Park, a large house with some farmland on the outskirts of Poughkeepsie. Theodore moves his darkroom to the small space under the stairs.

1923       Takes Lee with him on a business trip to Puerto Rico to inspect centrifuges used in the sugar industry. Photographs widely.

1925       Lee goes to Paris. Theodore and Florence follow.

1930       25 November: Goes to visit Lee, now in Paris with Man Ray, and goes on to Stockholm with Lee.

1931       Returns to Paris with Lee.  Photographs Man Ray.

1945       Retires from the De Laval Separator Company.

              Gives Kingwood Park to John and moves to South Hamilton Street and then 12 Forbus Street, Poughkeepsie.

1946       Welcomes Lee who visits Poughkeepsie with Roland Penrose as part of her US tour for Conde Nast Vogue Magazine.

1947       Grandson Antony born 9th September to Lee and Roland Penrose.

1948       With Florence visits England to meet grandson.

1954       Florence is diagnosed with cancer and dies 11th September.

1955       Visits Lee and her family in England for three months.

1961       August: Goes to Rome and Venice with Lee.

1963       Visits Lee and her family in England.

1965       Visits Lee and her family in England.

1967       Makes last visit to England aged 95.

1969       Suffers minor stroke. Lee visits him in Poughkeepsie 25th September.

1971       Goes on Caribbean cruise with Lee in January.

5 May:     Death of Theodore in Poughkeepsie only one month before his centenary.


© Antony Penrose 2013 All rights reserved.

A selection of Theodore MILLER's work is available for sale through the Lee Miller Archives Print room.